Basic Input/Output in C++

C++Server Side ProgrammingProgramming

The C++ standard libraries provide an extensive set of input/output capabilities which we will see in subsequent chapters. This chapter will discuss very basic and most common I/O operations required for C++ programming.

C++ I/O occurs in streams, which are sequences of bytes. If bytes flow from a device like a keyboard, a disk drive, or a network connection etc. to main memory, this is called input operation and if bytes flow from main memory to a device like a display screen, a printer, a disk drive, or a network connection, etc., this is called output operation.

The Standard Output Stream (cout)

The predefined object cout is an instance of ostream class. The cout object is said to be "connected to" the standard output device, which usually is the display screen. The cout is used in conjunction with the stream insertion operator, which is written as << which are two less than signs as shown in the following example.

Example Code

 Live Demo

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

int main() {
   char str[] = "Hello C++";
   cout << "Value of str is : " << str << endl;
}

Output

Value of str is : Hello C++

The C++ compiler also determines the data type of variable to be output and selects the appropriate stream insertion operator to display the value. The << operator is overloaded to output data items of built-in types integer, float, double, strings and pointer values.

The insertion operator << may be used more than once in a single statement as shown above and endl is used to add a new-line at the end of the line.

The Standard Input Stream (cin)

The predefined object cin is an instance of istream class. The cin object is said to be attached to the standard input device, which usually is the keyboard. The cin is used in conjunction with the stream extraction operator, which is written as >> which are two greater than signs as shown in the following example.

Example Code

 Live Demo

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

int main() {
   char name[50];

   cout << "Please enter your name: ";
   cin >> name;
   cout << "Your name is: " << name << endl;
}

Output

Please enter your name: cplusplus
Your name is: cplusplus

The C++ compiler also determines the data type of the entered value and selects the appropriate stream extraction operator to extract the value and store it in the given variables.

The stream extraction operator >> may be used more than once in a single statement. To request more than one datum you can use the following −

cin >> name >> age;

This will be equivalent to the following two statements −

cin >> name;
cin >> age;
raja
Published on 02-Apr-2019 12:28:59
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