## Caesar Cipher in Cryptography

Updated on 08-Feb-2023 20:31:16
The Caesar Cipher is a simple substitution cipher named after Julius Caesar, who reportedly used it to communicate with his officials. The technique involves shifting each letter in a message by a fixed number of positions in the alphabet. For example, with a shift of 3, A would be replaced by D, B would become E, and so on. The Caesar Cipher is relatively easy to break and is considered to be a very weak form of encryption, but it served its purpose for Julius Caesar. It's still used for educational and recreational purposes. Algorithm for Caesar Cipher Here is ... Read More

## Breaking Cryptography

Updated on 08-Feb-2023 21:01:25
Breaking cryptography typically involves attempting to discover the secret key that was used to encrypt a message. Once the secret key is discovered, it can be used to decrypt the original message, making it readable. There are a variety of methods that can be used to try to break a cryptographic system, including − Brute force − Trying all possible secret keys until the correct one is found. Ciphertext-only attack − Attempting to decrypt a message without knowing the key, but only having access to the ciphertext (the encrypted message). Known plaintext attack − Attempting to decrypt a message ... Read More

## Bifid Cipher in Cryptography

Updated on 08-Feb-2023 21:29:50
The Bifid Cipher is a polygraphic substitution cipher that was invented by the French amateur cryptographer Felix Delastelle at the end of the 19th century. It is considered a polygraphic cipher because it encrypts pairs of letters at a time, rather than single letters like monoalphabetic ciphers such as the Caesar Cipher. The Bifid Cipher is based on a polybius square, which is a 5x5 grid of letters that is used to encrypt the plaintext. The grid is usually filled with a combination of the alphabet and a keyword or phrase. The letters in the keyword or phrase are placed ... Read More

## Avalanche Effect in Cryptography

Updated on 06-Feb-2023 20:55:11
The avalanche effect in cryptography refers to the phenomenon where a small change in the input of a cryptographic function, such as a hash function, results in a significant and seemingly unrelated change in the output. This property is desirable in cryptographic functions because it makes it difficult for an attacker to predict the output of the function based on partial knowledge of the input. For example, consider a hash function that takes an input string and produces a fixed-size output. If the avalanche effect is strong, then making a small change to the input string, such as changing a ... Read More

## Chaumian Blinding

Updated on 27-Jan-2023 18:24:02
In today's digital age, privacy is a major concern for individuals and organizations alike. With the rise of online transactions and the increasing amount of personal data being shared online, it is more important than ever to ensure that sensitive information is protected. One way to do this is through the use of cryptographic techniques, such as Chaumian blinding. What is Chaumian Blinding? Chaumian blinding, also known as "blinding, " is a method of encrypting data that was first proposed by cryptographer David Chaum in 1983. The technique involves using a "blinding factor" to obscure the value of a message, ... Read More

## Birthday attack in Cryptography

Updated on 10-Jan-2023 10:47:59
What is a Birthday Attack? A birthday attack is a type of cryptographic attack that relies on the birthday paradox to find a collision in a hash function. A hash function is a mathematical function that takes an input (called a message) and produces a fixed-size output (called a hash value or hash). The output is usually represented as a string of characters. One of the main properties of a hash function is that it is very difficult to generate the same hash value from two different input messages. This property is called collision resistance. The birthday paradox is a ... Read More

## Public-Key Signatures

Updated on 10-Jan-2023 10:46:15
What is a Public Key Signature? A public key signature is a type of digital signature that uses a pair of keys – a public key and a private key – to authenticate the sender of a message. The private key is kept secret by the sender and is used to create the signature, while the public key is made available to anyone who wants to verify the signature. Public key signatures are based on the principles of public key cryptography, in which a message encrypted with a public key can only be decrypted with the corresponding private key. This ... Read More

## Symmetric-Key Signatures

Updated on 10-Jan-2023 10:40:04
What is a Symmetric Key? A symmetric key is a type of cryptography in which the same secret key is used for both encrypting and decrypting a message. It is also referred to as a shared secret because both the sender and the recipient of the message must have the key in order to be able to encrypt and decrypt the message. Symmetric key algorithms are fast and efficient, but they require that both the sender and the recipient of the message have a copy of the key in advance. This can be a challenge in situations where the sender ... Read More

## Fundamental Cryptographic Principles

Updated on 10-Jan-2023 10:35:15
What is Cryptographic? Cryptography is the study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties. It involves the use of mathematical algorithms and protocols to secure the confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of communication. Cryptography is used in a wide range of applications, including securing communication over the internet, protecting sensitive data, and authenticating the identity of users. There are two main types of cryptography − symmetric cryptography and asymmetric cryptography. In symmetric cryptography, the same key is used for both encryption and decryption. This is suitable for situations where the sender and receiver of a message have ... Read More

## Difference Between Digital Signature and Digital Certificate

Updated on 20-Dec-2022 12:49:02
An attachment to an electronic document that can be viewed as a signature is referred to as a digital signature. It is used to prevent the unauthorized alterations in a document. Thus, a digital signature is created for encrypting the document. On the other hand, the medium which is provided to validate the identity of a user for an electronic transaction is referred to as a digital certificate. Digital certificates are used to provide protection against unauthorized data exchange from user to websites. The most basic difference between a digital signature and a digital certificate is that a digital signature ... Read More