Found 1331 Articles for Computer Network

Calculation of TCP Checksum

Satish Kumar
Updated on 08-Feb-2023 20:51:26
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) checksum is a method used to detect errors in TCP packets. The checksum is calculated by taking the binary value of all the fields in the TCP header and the data, treating them as a large integer, and then performing a bit-wise ones complement on that integer. To calculate the TCP checksum, the following steps are performed − The checksum field in the TCP header is set to zero. The binary values of the source and destination IP addresses, the reserved field, the protocol field (set to 6 for TCP), the TCP length, and ... Read More

Cable TV Networks

Satish Kumar
Updated on 08-Feb-2023 21:34:08
Cable television networks are television channels that are delivered to viewers through cable television systems, as opposed to broadcast television, satellite television, or the internet. Some examples of popular cable TV networks in the United States include ESPN, TNT, and HBO. Cable networks can also be divided into categories, such as news networks (CNN, Fox News), sports networks (ESPN, NBC Sports), movie networks (HBO, Showtime), and lifestyle networks (Food Network, HGTV). Cable Network operate by subscription where viewer pays to the operator to get access to the channels. Types of Cable TV Networks There are several different types of cable ... Read More

Cable TV for Data Transfer

Satish Kumar
Updated on 08-Feb-2023 21:35:52
Cable television (TV) networks have been used for data transfer in the past. Cable TV networks were initially designed to transmit television signals, but they have also been used to provide internet access and other types of data transfer services. This is typically done using a technology called "cable modem, " which allows data to be sent over the same cable that is used to transmit TV signals. Cable TV companies often provide internet service through cable modems as part of a bundle that includes TV and telephone services. Cable modem internet service is generally faster than DSL and has ... Read More

Bus topology vs Ring topology

Satish Kumar
Updated on 08-Feb-2023 20:57:04
Bus Topology In computer networking, a bus topology is a network architecture in which devices are connected to a common cable called the bus or backbone. The bus is a single cable that runs the length of the network and to which all devices connect. Data transmitted on the bus is sent to all devices connected to it, but only the intended recipient actually receives and processes the data. One of the main advantage of bus topology is that it is simple and inexpensive to implement, as only a single cable is needed to connect all devices. The main disadvantage ... Read More

Buffering in Computer Network

Satish Kumar
Updated on 08-Feb-2023 20:59:21
Buffering refers to the process of temporarily storing data in memory (a buffer) before it is sent or received over a network. The buffer helps to smooth out any variations in the rate at which data can be sent or received, and ensures that the sender and receiver can work at their own pace without interruption. For example, when streaming a video, the video player may buffer some of the video before it starts playing. This is done so that if the network connection is slow, the video can continue playing without interruption. Similarly, when a computer is sending data ... Read More

Breaking Cryptography

Satish Kumar
Updated on 08-Feb-2023 21:01:25
Breaking cryptography typically involves attempting to discover the secret key that was used to encrypt a message. Once the secret key is discovered, it can be used to decrypt the original message, making it readable. There are a variety of methods that can be used to try to break a cryptographic system, including − Brute force − Trying all possible secret keys until the correct one is found. Ciphertext-only attack − Attempting to decrypt a message without knowing the key, but only having access to the ciphertext (the encrypted message). Known plaintext attack − Attempting to decrypt a message ... Read More

Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP)

Satish Kumar
Updated on 08-Feb-2023 21:03:00
The Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) is a legacy computer networking protocol used to automatically assign IP addresses to devices on a network. BOOTP was developed in the 1980s as a way to assign IP addresses to diskless workstations without the need for a DHCP server. BOOTP works by allowing a device to broadcast a request for an IP address on the network. The BOOTP server, which is typically a router or a dedicated BOOTP server, receives the request and assigns an IP address to the device. The device then uses the assigned IP address to communicate with other devices on the ... Read More

Birman Schiper Stephenson Protocol

Satish Kumar
Updated on 08-Feb-2023 21:27:29
The Birman-Schiper-Stephenson (BSS) Protocol is a distributed computing protocol that allows a group of computers to maintain a consistent shared state despite the possibility of failures. It was first described in a paper by Michael Birman, Roger Schiper, and Tom Stephenson in 1985. In the BSS Protocol, each computer in the group is assigned a unique identifier and acts as a "replica" of the shared state. The replicas communicate with each other using a series of message passing operations to maintain consistency of the shared state. The protocol is based on a "token" that is passed between replicas, which serves ... Read More

Binary Synchronous Communication (BISYNC)

Satish Kumar
Updated on 08-Feb-2023 21:28:48
Binary Synchronous Communication (BISYNC) is a communication protocol that uses synchronous transmission to transfer data between devices. In BISYNC, data is transmitted in fixed-length blocks, called frames, with a start and stop bit at the beginning and end of each frame. The start and stop bits are used to synchronize the sender and receiver, so that they can accurately read and interpret the data in the frame. BISYNC uses a complex set of control characters to manage the flow of data and to maintain the synchronization between the sender and receiver. For example, the "ENQ" (enquiry) character is used to ... Read More

Bifid Cipher in Cryptography

Satish Kumar
Updated on 08-Feb-2023 21:29:50
The Bifid Cipher is a polygraphic substitution cipher that was invented by the French amateur cryptographer Felix Delastelle at the end of the 19th century. It is considered a polygraphic cipher because it encrypts pairs of letters at a time, rather than single letters like monoalphabetic ciphers such as the Caesar Cipher. The Bifid Cipher is based on a polybius square, which is a 5x5 grid of letters that is used to encrypt the plaintext. The grid is usually filled with a combination of the alphabet and a keyword or phrase. The letters in the keyword or phrase are placed ... Read More
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