Found 1725 Articles for Big Data Analytics

How to create a B-Tree in DBMS?

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 08-Jul-2021 08:02:28
ProblemCreate a B-Tree of order 4 for the following set of key values −1, 12, 8, 2, 25, 6, 14, 28, 17, 7, 52, 16, 48, 68, 3SolutionLet us start constructing B-Tree step by step −Step 1 − As the given order is 4, the first four items go into root and are arranged in sorted order (ascending).Step 2 − Now, we need to insert the fifth element, if we insert the fifth item in root it violates the condition, because the order is 4.Step 3 − So, when 25 arrives pick the middle key to make a new root.Step ... Read More

What is B-tree and explain the reasons for using it (DBMS)?

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 08-Jul-2021 07:58:37
Let us first try to understand why we are using B-tree. Then, we will get a clarity on the definition of B-tree.Reasons for using B-treeThe reasons for using B-tree are as follows −When searching tables on disc, the cost of accessing the disk is high but it doesn’t bother about the amount of data transferred. So our aim is to minimize disc access.We know that we cannot improve the height of trees. So, we wish to make the height of the tree as small as possible.The solution for this is to use a B-tree, it has more branches and thus ... Read More

State the advantages and disadvantages of collision resolution strategies

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 08-Jul-2021 07:55:48
The advantages and disadvantages of some of the collision resolution techniques are explained below −Separate Chaining hashingSeparate chaining is a hashing technique in which there is a list to handle collisions. So there are many elements at the same position and they are in a list. The sequences are maintained in a linked list.The advantages of separate chaining hashing are as follows −Separate chaining technique is not sensitive to the size of the table.The idea and the implementation are simple.The disadvantages of separate chaining hashing are as follows −Keys are not evenly distributed in separate chaining.Separate chaining can lead to ... Read More

What are collision avoidance techniques(DBMS)?

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 08-Jul-2021 07:51:36
Collision is a problem that occurs when two keys applied on a hash table map to the same location in the hash table.There are two techniques that are used to avoid collision they are −Linear probing.Chaining.Let us discuss each technique in detail.Linear probingLinear probing is a strategy for resolving collisions. In this the new key is placed in the closest following empty cell.Here the elements are stored wherever the hash function maps into a hash table, if that cell is filled then the next consecutive location is searched to store that value. Here generally we use arrays.Step 1 − Let ... Read More

What are different hashing methods in DBMS?

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 08-Jul-2021 07:49:10
Hashed file organisation is also called a direct file organisation.In this method, for storing the records a hash function is calculated, which provides the address of the block to store the record. Any type of mathematical function can be used as a hash function. It can be simple or complex.Hash function is applied to columns or attributes to get the block address. The records are stored randomly. So, it is also known as Direct or Random file organization.If the generated hash function is on the column which is considered as key, then the column can be called as hash key ... Read More

Explain the concept of secondary index in DBMS

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 08-Jul-2021 07:46:41
In secondary Index (Unique value) is created for each record in a data file which is a candidate key. Secondary index is a type of dense index and also called a non clustering index.Secondary mapping size will be small as the two levels DB indexing is used.While creating the index, generally the index table is kept in the primary memory and the main table is kept in secondary memory because of its size.A table may contain thousands of records for this reason the sparse index becomes so large which cannot be handled in primary memory.Also, if we cannot keep the ... Read More

Explain the importance of centralized databases

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 08-Jul-2021 07:45:01
Different organizations have struggled with their management information systems and their membership databases. The main struggle here is the lack of centralized information. Too often, assurance and non-profits keep separate databases for membership, events, sales, and other processes. When at all feasible, these databases should be combined into a single, centralized database.Advantages of centralized database over other databasesThe advantages of centralized database over other databases are explained below −Data integrity − In a centralized database the data integrity is maximized and data redundancy is minimized, as the single storing place of all the data also implies that a given set ... Read More

What is a distributed database?

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 08-Jul-2021 07:43:50
A distributed database is the one where all the storage devices are not attached to a common CPU (central processing unit). It may be distributed over a network of interconnected computers, or it may be stored in multiple computers located in the same physical location.Distributed Database Management SystemA distributed database management system (DDBMS) manages the database as in if it is stored in the same computer.The DDBMS synchronizes all the data in a periodical manner and in situations when multiple users are accessing the same data and ensures that updation and deletion performed on the data at one location shall ... Read More

What is clustering Index in DBMS?

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 08-Jul-2021 07:42:17
A Clustered index is one of the special types of index which reorders the way records in the table are physically stored on the disk. It sorts and stores the data rows in the table or view based on their key values. It is essentially a sorted copy of the data in the indexed columns.Sometimes we are asked to create an index on a non-unique key like dept-id in the below table. There could be several employees in each department. Here, all employees belonging to the same dept-id are considered to be within a single cluster, and the index pointers ... Read More

What is the primary index in DBMS?

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 08-Jul-2021 07:40:15
In the primary index there is a one-to-one relationship between the entries in the index table and records in the main table. Primary index is used on a primary key.Types of Primary IndexPrimary index are of two types, which are as follows −Dense Primary IndexIn a dense primary index an index record appears for every search key value in the main table that means each and every record in the main table has an entry in the index.ExampleGiven below is an example of dense primary index −A pointer stores the address of a record.Non-Dense / Sparse Primary indexAn index record ... Read More
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