The answer is there is no such single table where you can find everything pertaining to qualifications as they are stored in PD tables as well.
Basically, they are of object type ‘Q’ and are stored under HRP1000. HRP10001 will capture the relation between the qualification and employee. We do have qualification rating and scales which you can find in HRPAD31 and T77TP respectively. T77TS stores the text with an id of qualification.
You can also go ahead with function module ‘RHPP_Q_PROFILE_READ’ which you can use.