Which programming language is better for writing Selenium web driver scripts, Python or Java?

In this article, we will learn which programming language is better for writing Selenium web driver scripts, Python or Java.

Choosing the ideal programming language from a pool of options might be tough. Python, Java, and Selenium each have their own set of functionalities. Selenium is being used by a growing number of enterprises to test web applications. Surprisingly, Selenium supports a variety of programming languages for test automation. Among them, the best competitors for Selenium binding are Java and Python.

What is the Selenium?

Selenium is an open-source tool that is used for major automation testing work. Selenium is simple to install on systems such as Windows, Linux, Macintosh, and Solarix.

Follow are the main elements of Selenium −

  • Selenium RC,

  • Selenium IDE,

  • Webdriver,

  • Selenium Grid

Furthermore, it supports operating systems (OS) for mobile applications such as Android, iOS, and Windows Mobile. Selenium 4.0 is the most recent version available on the market.

For test automation, Selenium may support a variety of programming languages, though the two highly used languages are Java and Python. So, let's have a look at the Selenium bindings for these popular programming languages.

What is Selenese?

Selenium's test domain-specific language, Selenese, is used to test web applications. Selenium's record and playback function allows the tool to record tests, check for broken links, the existence of objects on the UI, Alerts, Ajax functionality, and so on. Selenese also assists you in developing test cases in many programming languages such as Python, Java, PHP, Ruby, Perl, Scala, and others via the Selenium Client API.

Selenium with Python

Python is well-known in the programming world as an easy-to-learn, open-source, general-purpose programming language that is widely used worldwide.

Python can be used for a variety of purposes, including −

  • Development of Web application

  • Mobile apps

  • Game development

  • Graphical User Interface(GUI) development

  • Data Science

  • Network Programming

Selenium with Python is popular for the following reasons −

  • More productivity

  • Dynamically typed language

  • Simple coding and readability

  • A language that is widely used

Python, on the other hand, reduces the time it takes to run the script, as well as the time it takes to execute it.

Python's code flow is understandable because it employs indentation rather than brackets in initiation and end blocks.

Python is a less verbose programming language than others. It uses simple English terms that are straightforward to construct.

Selenium with Python is simple to read because of the ease of programming. Furthermore, it is dynamically typed.

Python as a programming language is well-known among programmers.

Because Selenium makes use of Python's API, connecting a browser is simple.

Python, as a scripting language, eliminates the requirement to execute a compiler when translating code. You can implement as well as utilize without it.

Python's heart and soul are its community support. When performing automation testing using Selenium and Python, the community provides excellent support for trouble-free execution.

When using Python with Selenium, there are numerous extension tools available, the most powerful of which is WebDriver.

Selenium with Java

Java, on the other hand, is a robust, well-established programming language that has widespread adoption around the world. Despite its long history, it is an evergreen programming language with a promising future.

  • Because Java is an older language than Python, it is universally appreciated. Because of this preference, it has a massive community that provides large-scale support with a variety of resources.

  • Since Java has been around for a long time, there are several plugins, APIs, frameworks, and even libraries available. These resources provide Java support for seamless test automation.

  • In comparison to other languages, Java is widely used by companies and testers. Because there are so many professionals in this sector, it is easier to share knowledge.

  • Selenium with Java binding has more takers.

  • Java has become a platform-independent language as a result of its use of the JVM. It means that wherever a JVM is installed, Java will operate well on those Operating Systems.

  • Selenium's execution speed with Java is faster.

  • In comparison, Java has a large presence in commercial applications, and this characteristic makes integrating Selenium tests simple.

  • Most significantly, Java is a godsend when it comes to dealing with coding problems. Because it is typed statistically, Java IDEs are quite helpful in providing feedback. It also aids in appropriate error handling.

Selenium with Java is popular for the following reasons −

  • A greater number of Selenium with Java users

  • Java has widespread community support.

  • Selenium is developed using Java.

  • 80% of Selenium testers use the Selenium Java binding for faster execution.

While there is no perfect language for Selenium, both Java and Python have something special to offer. So, which language should Selenium be used? It is determined by a variety of elements such as the team's position, the language spoken at the organizational level, local support, user-friendliness, and, most importantly, comfort level, among others.

Which has a better career, Selenium with Python or Selenium with Java?

Selenium with Java is used in 80% of industries for performing automation testing. As a result, a career in Selenium using Java makes more sense.

All fresh start-ups and medium-sized enterprises favour Selenium Python binding due to its ease of setup. However, this combination's prospects may improve soon.

However, as of now, the probability of obtaining a job with Selenium Java binding is 7:3.


If you are new to automation testing, we recommend that you study Selenium with Java training to kick-start your career as a tester. You can learn Python once you have handson experience, as the future of Selenium Python binding appears to be bright.