What is the full form of CAPF ?

Introduction to CAPF

Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) was created to safeguard internal security and uphold law and order throughout the nation.

To handle a range of scenarios, including riot control, counterterrorism, and disaster management, CAPF soldiers receive extensive training. Also, they have the most up-to-date tools and equipment at their disposal to perform their jobs effectively. The CAPF has been essential in preserving peace and order throughout the nation, including in regions with insurrections and terrorist attacks. They have also participated in rescue efforts and disaster aid during natural disasters.

Structure of CAPF

Following is a general description of the CAPF structure −

  • Director-General (DG) − The DG is each CAPF force's highest-ranking officer and is in charge of the force's overall management and operations.

  • Assistant Director General (ADG) − The ADG supports the DG in leading and directing the force's operations.

  • Inspector General (IG − The IG monitors the activities in a specific area or industry.

  • Deputy Inspector General (DIG) − The DIG monitors the activities within a specific division or industry.

  • Commandant − The Commandant manages the activities of a battalion or other team of employees.

  • Deputy Commandant − The Deputy Commandant supports the Commandant in leading a battalion or other body of personnel.

  • Assistant Commandant − The Assistant Commandant manages the operations and training of a platoon of soldiers.

Roles and Responsibilities of CAPF

The Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) in India have the following functions and responsibilities −

  • Internal security is maintained by CAPF members who support state police in upholding the law, battling terrorism and insurgency, and resolving intercommunal and caste problems.

  • The BSF, SSB, and ITBP are in charge of maintaining border security along India's land borders with its neighbors and combating transnational crimes, including smuggling and illegal immigration.

  • The CISF offers security for the private sector, which includes industrial facilities, IT firms, and educational institutions, as well as critical infrastructure including airports, seaports, and significant government buildings.

  • Members of the CAPF are equipped to conduct search-and-rescue missions in the event of landslides, floods, and earthquakes.

  • VIP security, which includes protection for political figures, government officials, and foreign dignitaries, is the responsibility of the CRPF and CISF.

List of Central Armed Police Forces

The five Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) of India are listed below −

  • Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) − With more than 300,000 members, the CRPF is the largest CAPF force. Its major duty is to support the state police in upholding the law, quelling insurrections, and fending against terrorism. Besides handling election-related tasks, the CRPF also protects VIPs. The force is composed of specialist divisions, such as the Rapid Action Force (RAF), whose job it is to keep the peace amid riots and other forms of public unrest.

  • Border Security Force (BSF)Bangladesh and Pakistan's land borders with India are patrolled by the BSF. Furthermore, it defends important facilities like nuclear power plants and airports. India's coastline borders must be protected by the force's specialist Border Security Force Marine Wing.

  • Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) − The CISF guards vital government and commercial infrastructure, including airports, ports, and significant buildings. Also, it offers security to businesses in the private sector, such as factories, IT firms, and academic institutions.

  • Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB) − The SSB is in charge of policing the borders between India and Nepal and Bhutan. Its main function is to stop transnational crimes like smuggling and illegal immigration. Also, the unit aids state police in upholding peace and order in border regions.

  • Indian Border Police (ITBP) − The ITBP is in charge of policing India's borders with China. Additionally, it offers security to important infrastructure, such airports and hydroelectric power facilities. The force, which has mountaineering training, is in charge of conducting relief and rescue operations during natural disasters in the Himalayan region.

Criticisms and Controversies surrounding CAPF

Over the years, there have been numerous debates and criticisms about India's Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF). Among the most pressing problems are −

  • There have been numerous occasions in which CAPF employees have acted without consequence and without being held accountable. Civilians now feel distrust and terror as a result of this.

  • While playing a critical role in upholding internal security, CAPF members frequently lack the necessary training and tools, making them unable to deal with challenging circumstances.

  • A high percentage of suicides and mental health problems are experienced by CAPF personnel since they are frequently stationed in isolated areas with challenging terrain, poor housing circumstances, and inadequate medical services.


India's Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) are essential to preserving law and order and safeguarding internal security. CAPF soldiers are well-prepared to handle a variety of crises, from riot control and counterterrorism to disaster relief and rescue operations, thanks to their specialized training, cutting-edge equipment, and technology. Notwithstanding numerous difficulties and controversies, CAPF is still a vital part of India's security system, and the country strongly values the contributions it makes. With continuous modernization and reform initiatives, CAPF is prepared to meet India's security demands for years to come.


Q1. What tools and weapons does the CAPF employ?

Ans. Depending on their particular function and responsibilities, the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) employ a range of tools and weaponry. The CAPF frequently employs the following weapons and tools −

  • Firearms

  • Non-lethal weapons

  • Communication equipment

  • Armored vehicles

  • Surveillance equipment

Q2. What challenges are faced by CAPF?

Ans. The Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) must contend with a number of issues, such as terrorism and insurgency, border security, VIP protection, equipment and technology, hiring and training, and poor public perception.

Q3. Explain briefly the history of CAPF.

Ans. The Assam Rifles, the first CAPF unit, was created in 1835 as a paramilitary force to defend British interests in India's northeast. A number of additional forces have been developed over time to uphold the nation's internal security and law and order.

The Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) was founded in 1939 and the Border Security Force (BSF) in 1965. In 1962 and 1963, respectively, the Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) and Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB) were founded. The Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) was created in 1969 to protect crucial installations and businesses in the public sector.

Updated on: 17-May-2023


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