What is the full form of AMI ?

What is Acute myocardial infarction?

Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) is an acute cardiac arrest that occurs when blood flow is suddenly discontinued to the heart muscle, causing tissue damage.

The reason behind Acute myocardial infarction is a blockage in multiple coronary arteries. A blockage generally develops due to the formation of fat layers along with cholesterol and other cellular waste products. It might also happen due to unexpected blood clot formation which lead to blockage.

Acute myocardial infarctions is considered one of the dominant causes of death in the both developed and developing countries, with the extensiveness reaching about 3 million people worldwide.


The primary symptoms of a heart attack are mostly designated as chest throbbing and breathlessness, but the symptoms might vary from individual to individual. Following are the common symptoms of cardiac arrest or heart attacks −

  • Chest Tightness

  • Chest pain and throbbing in different upper parts of the body that might last for a few hours.

  • Breathlessness

  • Excessive sweating

  • Feeling of nausea

  • Feeling of anxiety

  • Numbness

  • Faster heart beat

The symptoms of heart attack might vary from individual to individual. But chest pain is considered the most common symptom amongst both women and men. Some of the symptoms of heart attack include −

  • Jaw pain

  • Upper back pain

  • Lightheadedness


The primary diagnosis of determining heart attack is analysing any past history and also the blood pressure level of the concerned person. Normally a physical examination is undergone like Electrocardiogram or Angiogram to detect any specific problem associated with the functioning of the heart.An angiogram is done to detect the presence of any blockage and if any such positive result is found an angiography is done.Blood tests are also conducted to detect the level of troponin.


Cardiac arrest or heart attacks require prompt treatment and it might include taking medications for resolving the blood clots that can reduce pain, or control the heart rate. The doctors may also undergo a pernicious procedure called percutaneous coronary intervention or PCI which is also known as stent with angiography and the procedure is undertaken to unblock arteries.

Following are the different medications to cure a heart attack −

  • Blood thinning agents like aspirin are often used to resolve the clotting of blood and revamp the flow of blood through the constricted arteries.

  • Thrombolytics are also applied for dissolving blood clots.

  • Antiplatelet drugs like clopidogrel are prescribed so that no new clots are formed and also there is no further growth of the existing clots.

  • Nitroglycerin is used to broaden the passage of the blood vessels.

  • Beta-blockers often lowers the blood pressure and relaxes the cardiac muscle which helps in preventing the damage of the heart walls.

  • ACE inhibitors can also reduce the blood pressure level and turn down the stress on the heart.

Risk Factors

Following are the risk associated with Acute myocardial infarction −

  • High blood pressure can impair the arteries and initiate the development of fat deposition inside the arteries.

  • Elevated blood sugar levels often damage blood vessels and can lead to coronary artery disease.

  • Smoking is a significant and a striking risk factor for heart attack and other cardiovascular diseases.

  • Heart attack is predominant if there is a history of any type of heart disease earlier in a family.

  • Excessive stress can also lead to myocardial infarction.

  • Physical inactivity can make us unhealthy,so regular exercising can keep our heart healthy and reduce our blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar levels in the body.

  • Recurrent use of some specific drugs like cocaine and amphetamines can narrow down the blood vessels,thereby increasing the chances of heart attack.

  • If there is any sort of previous medical history of preeclampsia or high blood pressure during pregnancy, it can pose a high risk of acquiring heart disease at a later point of time.


Acute myocardial infarction or heart attack is a significant state of the heart that lead to a discontinuous blood flow in the heart.This state generally requires immediate medical diagnosis and treatment.The two most important strategies to prevent the complexities associated with such heart condition and that can also minimise the prolonged actions on our health-the first is to maintain a healthy life with a proper diet plan and secondly by maintaining a regular check up by visiting a cardiologist which can prevent heart attacks from further occurrence in the future.


Q1.How can heart attacks be prevented?

Ans. Heart attacks can be prevented by maintaining a healthy diet prescribed from a dietitian. The diet should consist of green leafy vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and protein. Sugar, trans fat,saturated fats and cholesterol should be strictly wiped off from the diet chart.

Q2. What are the chances of having a second heart attack?.

Ans. If someone already had a heart attack, then that person can be at increased risk of a second heart attack as well. This happens because our cardiac muscles become weak due to the first attack.

Q3.What is Angiography?

Ans. A coronary angiography is mainly conducted if anyone has a blockage in the coronary artery or if anyone is having unstable angina, aortic stenosis or any unexplained cardiac failure. In this process a contrast dye is injected into our arteries with the help of a catheter, a thin tube like structure and the blood flow is monitored through the X-ray screen.

Updated on: 17-Apr-2023


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