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What is the full form of ADR ?
What is ADR?
The term Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) is often used to refer to any undesirable, unpleasant, or hazardous effects that a drug may have An adverse event is any harm that happens to a patient while they are taking medication, regardless of whether the medication is thought to be the cause or not. An adverse drug reaction is described as an appreciably damaging or uncomfortable reaction occurring from an intervention related to the use of a medical product; adverse effects frequently indicate danger from future administration and demand preventive or particular therapy or change of the dosage regimen.
Sometimes the administration of drugs results in a serious reaction. Usually, an ADR requires stopping the medication or lowering the dosage.
Symptoms of Adverse Drug Reaction
Mild Symptoms − Skin that is red, itchy, flaky, or swollen are the common symptoms. Some patient also experiences flat area of skin that is dotted with tiny pimples.
Severe Symptoms − blisters on the skin, eyesight issues, and excruciating swelling or itching” are examples of severe symptoms. Serious responses can result in illnesses like “toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN)”.
The symptoms of “anaphylaxis” include “wheezing, tingling, a constricted throat, difficulty breathing, and dizziness”. A severe, fatal reaction called “anaphylaxis” requires immediate medical attention.
ADR can be challenging to diagnose for a variety of factors. If a patient has many co-morbidities or is taking multiple medications, the drug-related symptoms may not be immediately apparent or they may resemble those of a common condition
Patch test − means a tiny amount of the medication is applied to the skin. A patch is applied to the region and remains there for two days. Then, the medical professional will look for a skin reaction.
Skin prick test − In this test a needle is used to prick the skin and a drop of the medication is applied to the forearm area. The doctor will keep an eye out for a response.
Intradermal test − A small quantity of liquid containing the medicine is injected beneath the skin's surface
For adverse medication reactions that are dosage-related, adjusting the dose or removing or triggering variables may be sufficient. Changing the dosage or shifting to a different medication will also help
Antihistamines − reduce minor symptoms like a rash or itching.
Steroids − minimize inflammation
Epinephrine − is a drug used to treat allergic reactions like anaphylaxis.
If you need to use the medication again after experiencing a reaction, desensitization may be used. The doctor will provide the medication in a few hours time in small doses. Any allergic response experienced by the patient will be treated by the provider. Once the entire amount is administered and the medicine stops causing any kind of allergic reaction, the dose is then increased according to the condition
An allergic reaction that can be extremely serious and can even lead to death is called anaphylaxis . The reaction might start after a few seconds or minutes of being exposed to an allergen, common triggers include specific foods and some drugs.
The abundance of chemicals is released by the immune system during anaphylaxis, which can result in shock, a reduction in blood pressure, and restricted airways that impair breathing. A quick, weak pulse, a skin rash, nausea, and vomiting are some of the warning signs and symptoms.
Epinephrine injection and a subsequent visit to the emergency department are necessary for anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis can even lead to death if it is not treated quickly.
Avoiding chemicals that cause this serious reaction is the best method for avoiding anaphylaxis.
Do not exercise immediately after eating if you have experienced exercise-induced anaphylaxis. If you get any anaphylactic symptoms, stop exercising immediately. At first, you might feel worn out, overheated, or have skin irritation. If you keep exercising, hives, edema, and serious breathing issues could appear.
Use medical alert jewelry or carry a card explaining the medication allergy as your medical alert identity. Healthcare professionals need to be aware that they shouldn't administer this medication to you.
If you are allergic to a medication, avoid taking anything that includes that medication. This includes skin-applied topical medications. If you're unsure, consult a pharmacist.
In modern therapeutic practice, it is crucial to comprehend adverse medication reactions. Pharmacy skills are necessary for the “clinical assessment, management, and surveillance” of ADR and are crucial for any doctor treating patients who use medication. A crucial tool in the clinical assessment, therapy, and surveillance of ADR is a reliable pharmacological database.Every logical concern of an adverse medication reaction needs to be reported by doctors. According to the ideals of transparency in medicine and science, physician-scientist collaboration in national and international health authorities needs to be encouraged and improved. To establish effective communication between patients and healthcare organizations scientists and physicians, individuals must also be informed about and encouraged to self-report potential adverse drug reactions (ADR )
Q1. What are the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) related to dose?
Ans. ADRs that are dose-related are especially concerning when a medication has a limited therapeutic index. Drug-drug interactions or reduced medication clearance in patients with compromised kidney or liver function may be the cause of ADRs. A prior exposure is required for allergic ADR , which are not dose-related.
Q2. What can be done to prevent adverse drug reactions ?
Ans. Understanding the drug and possible reactions to it are necessary for the prevention of adverse drug reactions. If medicines are changed or added, an analysis should be done to look for any potential drug interactions.
Q3. What is allergic ADR ?
Ans. Prior exposure is required for allergic ADRs, which are not dose-related. Drugs that function as antigens or allergens can cause allergies. A patient becomes sensitized to a substance, which causes one of several forms of allergic reaction with subsequent exposure.
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