What is Magnetomotive Force (MMF)?

The Magnetomotive force (MMF) is defined as the work done in moving a unit magnetic pole once around the magnetic circuit. It is a magnetic pressure that tends to set up magnetic flux in a magnetic circuit. Mathematically, the mmf is the product of current and number of turns of a coil.

Consider the coil consisting of N turns and an electric current of I amperes flowing in it. Therefore, the mmf is given by,

Magnetomotive force, MMF = 𝑁𝐼 … (1)

Unit of MMF

Since MMF is a product of current in amperes (A) and number of turns (T) in a coil, thus

Unit of MMF = Ampere − Turns (or AT)

MMF Formulae

  • In any magnetic circuit, if H being the magnetising force and l is the length of the magnetic circuit, then the mmf for the magnetic circuit is given by,

MMF = 𝐻 × 𝑙 … (2)

  • In any magnetic circuit, if Φ being the magnetic flux and S is the magnetic reluctance of the magnetic circuit. Then, the mmf required is given by,






Numerical Example (1)

An electromagnet consists of a coil of 1500 turns, if 2 A current flows in the coil. Determine the mmf of the electromagnet.


MMF = NI = 1500 × 2 = 3000 AT

Numerical Example (2)

A magnetic flux density of 1.6 Wb/m2 is required in the air gap of 4 mm. Calculate the mmf required.