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Uses of Biogas
Biogas is considered a greener fuel and its popularity has increased in preset times. It is made with the help of organic waste, which produces the required methane. However, when the waste is not managed with the proper process, it creates a major risk to the environment. The process of making the biogas helps to reduce those risk factors.
What is Biogas?
Biogas is a mixture of carbon dioxide and methane and is considered a renewable energy source. The process of making biogas requires the decomposition of all the organic waste. It can break the organic matter such as animal waste, and plant waste and includes food scraps. Biogas is used as fuel for cars and cooking gas and it can generate heat for household use, which can replace the traditional form of electricity.
Figure 1: Biogas Plant
The mixture of biogas, consists of one more gas along with carbon dioxide and methane, it is hydrogen sulphide. The main source of those gases is agricultural waste, municipal waste, plant material and green waste.
Process of making Biogas
Biogas is referred to as the most environmentally friendly and renewable source of gas. The main thing that is used to make biogas is organic waste. Biogas is produced when food waste or other animal waste goes through the process named anaerobic digestion.
In this process, microorganisms help to decompose the waste material and it produces methane. This renewable energy source is getting popularity because of the high requirement for energy. To fulfil the high demand more people are showing interest in the biogas plant to generate fuel.
Figure 2: Process of making biogas
The main thing that is required to make the biogas is cow dung; it is considered the main source. It consists of many bacteria that help the anaerobic decomposition of the organic waste. It is the reason biogas is referred to as gobar gas. Cow dung has methanobacterium, which helps to produce methane gas and it produces the manure that is essential in the decomposition of organic waste.
Biogas is produced in an anaerobic digester, where all the cow dung and organic waste treats together, it is known as a biogas plant. It is made with bricks and cement and making the biogas, it needs a few steps that should be followed accordingly.
Uses of Biogas
In biogas, a few gases can be found in a certain percentage. For example, methane can be 50 to 60 %, carbon dioxide can be 25 to 30%, nitrogen can be present up to 9 %, hydrogen can be found at 1%, and hydrogen sulphide and oxygen can be found in 0.01 to 0.05% and 0.5%, respectively. Other than those gases, water vapour is also present in the biogas, and the amount depends on the temperature and moisture level of the atmosphere.
Biogas has many uses such as-
In rural areas, it is used as cooking gas
It can be used in the production of electricity
It helps heat the water or room
Biogas is the perfect replacement for the compressed natural gas that is used in vehicles.
It can be used in CHP plants
In transportation, it can be used, for example in Sweden it is used in Amanda Biogas Train.
In the process of making the biogas, manure is produced which is considered a useful by-product.
In many states, biogas is used to light up streetlights.
It is useful in hydrogen fuel cells.
It can be used as fertilizer too.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Biogas
There are many advantages and disadvantages of using biogas, such as-
The most important fact about biogas is that it is a renewable source.
It helps to get rid of the waste material and in that way, it contributes to the environment.
It reduces the pollution of soil and water.
It helps in the reduction of methane emitted to the atmosphere, which positively affects climate change and leaves an impact on the environment.
Along with many advantages, there are some disadvantages too −
As the process of making biogas is a biological process, it cannot be controlled completely.
The process cannot be done anywhere in this world, because it requires warm weather.
Biogas is the best source of energy, which can replace natural gas with the slightest cleaning. It leaves a lower impact on the environment in comparison with any other gas. On one side, it does not affect the environment and on the other side, it is carbon-neutral. The vast list of usage is meaning it more popular day by day.
Q1. What is the main advantage of biogas?
Ans. Biogas has many advantages, but the most important among them is that it is eco-friendly. It also helps in preventing soil and water pollution. It is produced by using simple and low-cost technology.
Q2. Is biogas can be used in cooking?
Ans. Biogas can be used in cooking just like other fuel gas. Those biogases, which are produced in the household-level biogas reactors, are perfect for cooking purposes.
Q3. Is biogas a perfect replacement for natural gas?
Ans. Biogas can be more helpful just with a minor clean-up process. It can be used for generating electricity and heat energy and in this way it can be considered a helpful replacement for natural gas.
Q4. Why biogas is good for the environment?
Ans. Biogas can be produced in the simplest process, with the help of organic matter such as food or animal waste. They go through a breakdown process by microorganisms and this happens in the absence of oxygen, which is called anaerobic digestion. Because of that biogas is considered environment friendly.
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