Uses Of Benzene


Uses of benzene are mostly in tire and paper industries. The organic compound benzene was first discovered in the 19th century. The person who was able to find this organic compound is a scientist from England. This scientist is Michael Faraday who illuminated a gas to produce benzene. In this case, the process of derivation followed by Michael Faraday was to take a liquid apart from a condensed state of oil and gas.

Structure and formula of benzene

The structure of benzene is consisted of cyclic unsaturated hydrocarbon. The ratio of carbon and hydrogen present in the compound lacks a balance. All the six carbons that are found in a molecule are closely attached to the hydrogen atom. The entire arrangement is found in the form of a few rings that go around the molecule of benzene. These are the basic attributes of the structure that are found in an organic compound of benzene. The formula of benzene is known as C6H6 where, six carbons are attached over a single hydrogen atom.

Physical and Chemical Properties of Benzene

  • Benzene melts is an organic compound that does not have any colour.

  • The compound is found usually in the form of a liquid.

  • The melting point of benzene is 5. 5°C and the point where it boils is 80.1°C.

  • Benzene holds a certain amount of solubility in solvents found in its organic state.

  • The organic compound has an odour that is very aromatic.

  • The result of combusting benzene is the formation of flame-covered soot.

  • This organic compound is electrophilic by nature.

  • The reaction of fluorine with benzene is very aggressive when the catalyst is absent.

  • Benzene goes through a process of halogenation in the presence of Lewis acids.

  • Acyl benzene is formed when acyl halides react with it when Lewis acids are present.

Preparation of Benzene

Figure 1: Preparation of zinc from phenol

The preparation of benzene is done by making sulphuric acid go through the process of hydrolysis. In this case, a large amount of steam which is very high in temperature is put inside the acid to create benzene. Benzene is produced from ethane where the latter needs to go through a very hot tube whose temperature is 873K. The entire process is known as cyclic polymerization which produces benzene. The third method of preparing benzene requires heating phenol with metal called zinc. Dust of zinc gets some hot phenol to start the reaction. Thus the result is the formation of phenoxide ions that is finally converted into benzene.

Uses of Benzene

  • The manufacturing of tires and rubber needs a large amount of benzene. The production of these materials requires some steps to complete the production. Benzene is used most of the time in these particular steps to make quality tires and rubbers.

  • The industry where papers and journals are printed is automated due to the presence of dynamic printing machines. Therefore, the machine must be cleaned quite often to increase its efficiency. This cleaning agent contains benzene that the machines to stay in good shape.

Figure 2: Uses of benzene

  • Flammable products used to obtain energy like gasoline; fuels and kerosene are rich in benzene. There are many by-products of these substances for example lubricants used on metal joints have a considerable amount of benzene.

  • The use of benzene is very common in the industry where materials of plastic are manufactured. These are considered one of the ideal substances used in the production of Styrofoam and styrene.

  • This organic compound has its fair share of uses in the chemical industry. This is the reason behind the fact that benzene is a necessary component used in the production of various chemical fertilisers and dyes.

Facts about Benzene

  • There is no limit to the use of benzene in its pure form. Even after that, this compound helps in the production of various other chemicals.

  • Benzene has a nice aroma that was used as a lotion after shaving the beard and moustache.

  • The use of benzene is very significant as it made ranks in the top 20 chemicals used all the time in a year.

  • Benzene is not very safe for human beings but these are present inside all household items.

  • The total weight of benzene is more than the surrounding air hence stay suspended at a very low altitude.


The tutorial explains the uses of benzene in modern society made by human beings. The formation of this organic compound has various ways that imply the traits of inorganic minerals. These compounds have physical properties that show their ability to synthesise themselves as some product. The uses range from cosmetic products to industries manufacturing canned and processed food items. There are a few facts that further explain its uses to all learners.


Q1. What are the bonds that are found in the structure of benzene?

Ans. The entire structure of benzene is bonded by a structure of hydrocarbons that are attached to one another by a covalent bond. The structure takes the shape of a ring and remains a stable bond for an extended period of time.

Q2. What is the factor that influences the stability of benzene?

Ans. There is a single factor that plays large to make this organic compound stable. The constituent is attached by covalent bonds and placed in the form of rings. Now the rings have electrons that are not local to a place. Lastly, the electrons are situated at a place that is above and beneath the rings. These are the ways the organic compound stays stable.

Q3. What makes benzene harmful to the body of a human being?

Ans. The organic compound of benzene is firstly carcinogenic as it induces the probability of getting cancer in the body. Secondly, the consumption of benzene prohibits the body from working the way it should.

Updated on: 14-Apr-2023


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