# Torque On Dipole

Specifically, an electric dipole separates the positive as well as negative charges of a device. The behavior of the electric dipole mostly relies on the external electrical device. In the case of the placement of torque in a homogeneous electric device that denotes the E strength, the axis of the dipole forms an angle θ with an electric device. The force’s components are equivalent as well as separated by the inner distance of the electric dipole. If an electric dipole is placed in a contrast region of the electric device then the force on the charges will be equivalent to the magnitude of the electric device but the direction was just opposite to the force. In that case, the net force on the electric dipole becomes zero.

## What is torque?

Torque comprises the vector quantity and the external as well as an internal force that acts on the axis of the device mainly determine the direction of the torque. The magnitude of the torque can be determined by the formula τ = F r sinθ in which f stands for the force that acts on the axis of the device, and r represents the length of the device’s moment arm (Bielert et al. 2018). In this formula, θ refers to the angle that creates between the vector force as well as the moment arm, while T refers to the torque vector.

## What is an electric dipole?

An electric dipole stands for a pair of equal as well as opposite charge points that is denoted by the (q) and (–q). The two opposite charges are separated by each fixed distance. Electric dipoles are directed from the negative charge (–q) always in the space and positive (q) by default. The electric dipole can be defined as the two different opposite charges that are separated by the inner distance (d). The middle point of the two charges refers to the dipole. The electric dipole is represented with the symbol of p.

## Derivation of torque

The derivation of torque formula is determined by understanding torque as the moment of force. If an external force is applied to an object then the object starts to rotate and then it rotates around its axis (Zhang et al. 2021). This situation is referred to as the moment of force.

Figure 1: The derivation of torque

The lever arm refers to the perpendicular distance between two rotational axes of the point of force exertion. In the case of the applied perpendicular force to the rotation radius then the total force determined the speed of rotation while the force rather than the perpendicular then force’s perpendicular particles are surely found (Müller & Coyne, 2020). This happened because the perpendicular particles of the applied force cause the rotation.

Figure 2: Torque on an electric dipole

In the case of an electric dipole with a positive and negative charge have the inner distance (d) between two charges. If it is placed in the uniform the electrical device if strength (E) when the axis of the dipole creates an angle θ with the electric device (Nance et al. 2020). Then the force is F+=+qE and F-=-qE The components of the force perpendicular to an electric dipole are F+⊥=+qEsinθ and F−⊥=−qEsinθ.

## Application of torque on an electric dipole

Figure 3: The application of torque on an electric dipole

The electric dipole represents the uniform of the electric field. The external forces of two opposite charges are applied that is equivalent to the magnitude of power that comes from the opposite direction. As a result the net force has vanished on the dipole. The torque of forces that is applied on the two opposite charges has the same sense. Therefore, a non-zero torque is added to the dipole. The torque’s direction determined the relative orientation of the movement of the dipole as well as the external field of the electric device (Montoya et al. 2018).

Therefore, it is seen that if an electric dipole is oriented at the electric field’s angle then a non-zero torque will be seen on the dipole as the two different charges make a couple.

## Conclusion

The physical importance of an electric dipole in the electric field is not only very vivid but also it is very much applicable to the chemical field. In the case of the most physical or chemical molecules, the centre of the two opposite charges coincides at an equal point just because the inner distance between two charges is mostly zero. For example, CO2 and CH4 belong to the zero dipole moment category, so this type of molecule is referred to as the non-polar molecules. Besides this, the molecules having constant dipole moment is considered polar molecule. The polar molecule comprises the positive as well as negative charges without having coincided.

## FAQs

Q.1 What is the SI unit of dipole moment?

The dipole moment is measured with Coulomb.meter, which is the SI unit of this factor. The dipole moment is mostly dependent on the force applied by the external body.

Q.2 When the maximum torque on an electric dipole can be seen?

The maximum torque on an electric dipole can be seen when a dipole holds perpendicular to an electric field. This type of dipole moment is considered a polar molecule.

Q.3 When the minimum torque on an electric dipole can be seen?

The minimum torque on an electric dipole can be seen when a dipole holds parallel to an electric field. This type of dipole moment is considered a non-polar molecule.

Q.4 What is an example of an electric dipole.

The example of an electric dipole is seen when a pair of two opposite electric charge signs are equivalent to the magnitude and it is separated by the inner distance of an electric device. The net force on an electric dipole can be zero sometimes.

Tutorialspoint

Simply Easy Learning

Updated on: 18-Aug-2023

309 Views

##### Kickstart Your Career

Get certified by completing the course