Program to find number of magic sets from a permutation of first n natural numbers in Python

PythonServer Side ProgrammingProgramming

Suppose we have an array A with first n natural numbers, and one permutation P{p1, p2, ... pn} of array A. We have to check how many magic sets are there. A permutation is said to be magic set, if this satisfies these few rules −

  • If we have k, then the elements in positions a[1], a[2], ... a[k] are less than their adjacent elements [P[a[i] - 1] > P[a[i]] < P[a[i] + 1]]
  • If we have l, then the elements in positions b[1], b[2], ... b[l] are greater than their adjacent elements [P[b[i] - 1] < P[b[i]] > P[b[i] + 1]]

So, if the input is like n = 4 k = 1 l = 1 k_vals = [2] l_vals = [3], then the output will be 5 because: N = 4, a[1] = 2 and b[1] = 3. So the five permutations are [2,1,4,3], [3,2,4,1], [4,2,3,1], [3,1,4,2], [4,1,3,2].

To solve this, we will follow these steps −

  • p := 10^9+7
  • F := An array of size n+2 and fill with 0
  • for each a in k_vals, do
    • if F[a - 1] is 1 or F[a + 1] is 1, then
      • if F[a - 1] is 1 or F[a + 1] is 1, then
        • p := null
      • F[a] := 1
  • for each b in l_vals, do
    • if F[b] is 1 or F[b - 1] is -1 or F[b + 1] is -1, then
      • p := null
    • F[b] := -1
  • if p is same as null, then
    • return 0
  • otherwise,
    • A := An array of size n+1 and fill with 0
    • B := An array of size n+1 and fill with 0
    • FF := An array of size n+1 and fill with null
    • for i in range 1 to n, do
      • FF[i] := F[i] - F[i - 1]
    • A[1] := 1
    • for i in range 2 to n, do
      • for j in range 1 to i, do
        • if FF[i] > 0, then
          • B[j] :=(B[j - 1] + A[j - 1]) mod p
        • otherwise when FF[i] < 0, then
          • B[j] :=(B[j - 1] + A[i - 1] - A[j - 1]) mod p
        • otherwise,
          • B[j] :=(B[j - 1] + A[i - 1]) mod p
      • swap A and B
    • return A[n]

Example

Let us see the following implementation to get better understanding −

def solve(n, k, l, k_vals, l_vals):
   p = 10**9+7
   F = [0] * (n + 2)
   for a in k_vals:
      if F[a - 1] == 1 or F[a + 1] == 1:
         p = None
      F[a] = 1
   for b in l_vals:
      if F[b] == 1 or F[b - 1] == -1 or F[b + 1] == -1:
         p = None
      F[b] = -1
   if p == None:
      return 0
   else:
      A = [0] * (n + 1)
      B = [0] * (n + 1)
      FF = [None] * (n + 1)
      for i in range(1, n + 1):
         FF[i] = F[i] - F[i - 1]
      A[1] = 1
      for i in range(2, n + 1):
         for j in range(1, i + 1):
            if FF[i] > 0:
               B[j] = (B[j - 1] + A[j - 1]) % p
            elif FF[i] < 0:
               B[j] = (B[j - 1] + A[i - 1] - A[j - 1]) % p
            else:
               B[j] = (B[j - 1] + A[i - 1]) % p
         A, B = B, A
      return A[n]

n = 4
k = 1
l = 1
k_vals = [2]
l_vals = [3]
print(solve(n, k, l, k_vals, l_vals))

Input

4, 1, 1, [2], [3]

Input

5
raja
Updated on 23-Oct-2021 07:27:51

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