Parts of Speech

EnglishSentence Structure: Elements of Grammar

Introduction

Anyone who is interested in learning about language is likely to be aware that different words serve different purposes in various forms of writing. In this tutorial, we are going to learn about the "Eight Parts of Speech," in the English language, which refers to the eight different kinds of words that together cover major aspects of the language. The more you are aware of the distinctions, the more effectively you will be able to utilise language and the more engaging your writing will be.

Parts of Speech

Nouns, verbs, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions and interjections are the eight different types of words that make up the English language. The meaning of the term, as well as how it should be used grammatically, may be learned from its grammatical role inside the sentence.

Parts of speech are classified commonly into two classes, namely: Open classes and Closed classes 

  • Open classes include nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs

  • Closed classes include pronouns, conjunctions, determiners or articles, prepositions, and interjections. 

The open classes are the ones that can be modified and expanded upon as the language evolves, while the closed classes are the ones that are more fixed and difficult to change. For example, new nouns are coined every single day, yet conjunctions remain unchanged.

NOUN: A noun is a name given to a specific person, place, object, or concept. It can simply be said to be a naming word. Nouns play a multitude of roles within a sentence, as the subject, a direct object, an indirect object, a subject complement, or the object of a preposition in a sentence. When they are used as the name of something or someone, they are capitalised, these nouns are also referred to as proper nouns.

Nouns may either be singular or in plural forms and can either be concrete or abstract. Adding an 's to the end of a noun denotes possession. 

Example

.
  • Marry, you can come to my home this afternoon.

PRONOUN: One of the most traditional components of language is called the pronoun. A word used instead of a noun is known as a pronoun. Words like it, she, you, he, some, ours, myself, themselves, and each are all examples of pronouns. Instead of using a noun, we may use a pronoun.

If pronouns were not there in the English language, there would be repeated usage of the same nouns over and over again while we speak or write. Thus, when a person or object is being mentioned or discussed earlier in your writing or while you speak, you need not use a noun repeatedly, instead, you may use a pronoun. In a sentence, a pronoun might take on the role of the subject, the object, or the complement.

Unlike nouns, pronouns are rarely modified. In English, pronouns belong to the closed category, meaning that it is uncommon for new pronouns to be added.

Example

  • Reena is my friend, and she also helps me in school

VERB: Verbs are words that show action and inform the reader of what the noun is doing in the phrase. A verb conveys either the subject's activity or state of being.

The form of a verb changes depending on two factors−

  • the tense (present, past) and

  • the subject (singular or plural).

Some of the examples of verbs are sing, run, believe, drive, cook, eat, drink, be, finish, etc. In a sentence, there can be one primary verb as well as one or more assisting verbs, depending on the context. (She can swim.) The action verb here is 'swim', and the helping verb is 'can'.

Example

  • Tom can drive, swim, and run.

ADJECTIVES: Adjectives are words that describe other words, such as nouns and pronouns. They describe which one, the amount, the kind, and other details regarding nouns. Adjectives provide readers and listeners the ability to utilise their senses to form a more accurate mental image of what is being described.

Some of the examples of adjectives are big, beautiful, goofy, few, yellow, millions, funny, sweet, many, etc. 

Example

  • Daisy has brown hair and beautiful big blue eyes.

ADVERBS: Adverbs are considered one of the important parts of speech. They are the words that provide the context, adverbs may be understood more easily if seen in this light. Adverbs offer a description of when, how, where and to what degree, something is done or happened.

Adverbs usually end in the suffix –ly . (Quickly, carefully, gently, well, etc.), although there are plenty that do not

Example

  • John can run quickly.

PREPOSITION: A preposition is a word that connects nouns, pronouns, or phrases in a sentence to other words. They serve the purpose of connecting elements of a sentence, including persons, things, times, and places. Prepositions are short words that go before nouns.

Prepositions may be thought of as the glue that holds sentences together. Some of the prepositions are by, with, in, on, until, below, above, besides, etc.

Example

  • I was born in June 2000.

CONJUNCTION: A conjunction is a part of speech that joins words, phrases, clauses, or whole sentences. Conjunctions are regarded to be invariable grammar particles since they may either stand between the elements they conjoin or they can be placed anywhere else in the sentence

There are two types of conjunctions

    Coordinating conjunctions include words like (but, so, for, and, or). They are used to connect two independent sentences with an equal grammatical weight that can stand alone.

Example

  • I love eating delicious food, but I don’t like cooking.

  • Subordinating conjunctions include words like (although, because, since, etc.). Unlike Coordinating conjunction, they connect independent and dependent clauses that cannot be a complete sentence without each other.

Example

  • My father is my role model because he inspires me.

INTERJECTIONS: Interjections are short expressions that may be used alone or inside a sentence. These words and phrases often express strong feelings and responses to the listener. Interjections are casual and more common in conversation than in formal writing. When used in written communication, interjections are often followed by an exclamation mark, which serves in conveying a feeling of quick emotion or urgency.

Some of the interjections are Hey!, Whoops, Hooray! , Ouch, Yeah! , Wow!..

Example

  • Yeah! It's a holiday tomorrow.

Conclusion

As we have seen, this tutorial based on the concept of different parts of speech in the English language has come to an end, and we hope this will help you to make your learning journey easy.

FAQs

Qns 1. Which are the open class parts of speech?

Ans. The open classes are the ones that can be modified and expanded upon as the language evolves.

Qns 2. Which are the closed class parts of speech?

Ans. Closed classes are the ones that are more fixed and difficult to change.

Qns 3. Which part of speech is used more in conversations?

Ans. Interjections.

Qns 4. When does a pronoun substitute a noun?

Ans. When a person or object is being mentioned or discussed earlier in your writing or while you speak, you need not use a noun repeatedly, instead, you may use a pronoun.

Qns 5. Classify closed and open parts of speech?

Ans. Closed - pronouns, conjunctions, determiners or articles, prepositions, and interjections.

Open - nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs.

raja
Updated on 13-Oct-2022 11:19:47

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