Officers’ List in Mughal Empire


The ensuing order throughout the country became difficult for just one ruler. Thus different sectors were divided according to their requirements, and individual officers were appointed to these roles. They reported straight to the Emperor himself. This way all of the Mughal rulers left different but significant political legacies, which were followed and changed accordingly by their successors.

Who were the Officers in the Mughal Empire?

The advent of the Mughal era in India welcomed many important changes in the nation's social, economic, cultural administration, trade and lifestyle. Managing all of these sectors equally became a huge problem for the rulers. Thus all of these sectors were overlooked by designated officers and above them were the Mughal Emperors.

The Mughal Era saw a strictly military rule, thus whatever the Emperor said was considered the final law. These Officers were responsible for giving their reports directly to the rulers; thus, a structured administration prevailed.

Mughal Empire Officials: Designations and Functions

Different officers had different responsibilities and functions in the Mughal administration. The list of these officers with their names and functions are mentioned below

  • Diwan-i-Wazarat − The officers designated for this role mainly functioned in the revenue and finance department.

  • Diwan-i-Arz − These officers served for the military department of the Mughal Empire. They looked after the preservation and building of the Royal army

  • Diwan-i-Rasalatmuhtasib − The officers designated to this role looked mainly after foreign affairs. They functioned under the ruler to maintain cordial trade and economic relations with rulers of other countries.

  • Diwan-i-Insha − These officers were given the custody of important government papers. They were responsible for the royal correspondence regarding all matters and typical secretive affairs.

  • Diwan-i-Qaza − These officers maintained the judicial system of the country. The matters related to justice were on the shoulders of these officers

  • Diwan-i-Barid − The intelligence department of the Empire was designated for these officers. They overlooked affairs related to threats that could approach the Empire.

  • Diwan-i-Saman − These officers were given the charge of the Royal household. They managed every minute matter related to the royal household instead of the ruler himself.

Mughal officials: Administrative levels

Figure 1: Administrative units of the Mughal Empire

The names of the different designations for different levels of administration are thereby mentioned

  • Administration at the Central level (Sarkars) − The Wazir was the title given to the Chief Minister, who was mainly responsible for the revenue and finance. The Diwan took care of the kingdom's income and how it was spent. The Mir Bakshi gathered intelligence and sorted the promotions in the military department according to talents. The royal kharkhanas or the manufacturing industries were in the charge of the Mir Saman.

  • The Diwan-i-Bayutat looked after the welfare of the government roads and buildings. The Mir Manshi was responsible for reporting matters related to the royalty. The Sadr-us-Sadr were in charge of the donations, whereas, the Mir-i-arz were in charge of the petitions. The titles of the Mushrif-i-Mumalik and Mustauf-i-Mumalik were given, respectively, to the accountant and the auditor. The Waqia Navis generally performed the role of reporters.

  • Administration at Province level (Subas) − The charge of maintaining the administration at the province level was given to mainly the Sipahsalar. The person designated to this role had supreme authority over the civil and military departments. There was also the diwan who regulated laws regarding revenue. The Bakshi was in the charge of arranging the army of the province in question, whereas, the Sadr was the voice of the judicial system.

  • Administration at District level − The Fauzdar was mainly responsible for looking after the law and order at the district level. The Amalguzar, who collected land revenue and the Kotwal who was the main police figure both worked under the Fauzdar.

  • Administration at Paragana level − The Shiqdar had the same duties as the Kotwal and performed as the police chief.

  • Administration at the Village level − The head of the village was given the title of Muqaddam. The Patwari was an accountant, and the Chowkidar, was the watchman of the village

Mughal Empire: Navratnas

The Navratnas, or the nine gems of Akbar’s court, were extremely talented individuals with different sets of stupendous abilities. Their names and abilities are mentioned below

  • Abdul Rahim wrote poetry in Akbar’s court and was given the title of Khan-i-Khanan. He translated Baburnama into the Chagatai language from the Persian language.

  • Abul Fazl − He will always be remembered for writing the important documentations Ain-i-Akbari and Akbarnama based on the administration and rule of Akbar.

  • Birbal − He was the main advisor to the King and the army's commander. He was known for his humour.

  • Faizi − He was also a talented poet and a great literary scholar who translated a lot of great Sanskrit literature into the Persian language

  • Fakir Aziao-Din was a chief advisor known for his mystic nature and comments on religious matters.

  • Mullah Do Piaza − He was the designated Home minister to Akbar.

  • Raja Man Singh − The only Rajput among the Navratnas, he was the general of Akbar’s army.

  • Tansen − The most popular among the nine was this talented singer, musician and composer.

  • Todar Mal − He was the finance minister with excellent skills for regulating the land revenue system.


The Mughals ruled for centuries on Indian soil. They established a lot quickly, but maintaining those properly and in proper order was the main challenge. Thus, enlisting officers in different administrative roles were introduced as they reported to the King directly. This way, an unbiased of governing the whole country was possible. The administrative system of the Mughal Empire was mainly categorized into five parts, the Sarkar, the Subas, the Paragana, district and the Gram.


Q1. Who were the Muhtasibs and what was their role?

The Muhtasibs were important figures who administered at a central level and they performed the role of the police. They mainly looked after the general behaviour of the people in the towns and cities.

Q2. What were the roles of a Diwan-i-Wazarat?

They served for controlling different revenue settlements and debates. They were also given the responsibility of finalizing the taxes and also to after the expenses of the Empire.

Q3. Who was Faizi and what was his most important achievement?

Faizi was one of the Navratnas, he was a great poet and scholar. He was responsible for translating Lilavati and many other Sanskrit literature into the Persian language.

Updated on: 01-Feb-2023


Kickstart Your Career

Get certified by completing the course

Get Started