National Parks and Sanctuaries


The increasing rate of the population all over the world is the principal reason for building several national parks and sanctuaries. In order to accommodate the huge population and the aggressive nature of human beings, the animals are kept in national parks and sanctuaries. A natural park mainly looks after the sustainability of the natural environment while the sanctuary mainly looks after the suitability of the different animals.

What are national parks and sanctuaries?

National parks refers to a particular area that is built for maintaining the natural environment and is fully looked after by the government. In this type of area, public recreation as well as delightful activities is also closely associated. Different types of landscapes along with its flora and fauna are included in wildlife.

Figure 1: National park

All over the world, around 7.6% mammals, 6.2% reptiles, 12.6% birds, as well as 6.0% angiosperm are commonly seen. The national parks are mainly built for different regions like polar, wet, dry as well as tropical regions.

Sanctuaries refers to the present areas where the different species of animals are kept away from hunting, poaching as well as predation. In this area, the animals are not bred for commercial perspectives. It mainly provides health security and maintains security in terms of refugee aspects to all wild animals.

Figure 2: Sanctuary

Moreover, it is a place where all the injured, abandoned as well as abused wildlife are kept and total health security was maintained in this area. Any kind of commercialized breeding possesses is not used in this place and it is fully secure from any kind of hunting and all types of human intervention.

Characteristics of National Parks

  • Land of a national park is considered a reserved area.

  • The government owns National park.

  • Such parks are protected from any kind of human exploitation, pollution and industrialization.

  • In such parks, grazing, cutting trees and entry of outside species are fully notallowed.

  • The category protected areas is associated with a national park.

  • A representative natural system is required for a national park.

  • In such parks, a natural evolution takes place in the form of ecological processes.

  • Almost all national parks are rich in flora and fauna.

  • A unique geological formation is found in national parks.

Significance of National Parks

In maintaining the individual characteristics of every specific biological species, national parks possess immense significance. The nature of all ecological functions is largely predominant. All associated functions are ensured by the maintenance of such parks.

The management team of such parks excludes any kind of inhabited urban centers. In relation to foreign reserves, a prominent and effective outside protection is found to be integrally connected. The territory of a national park is contiguous that is free of enclaves. In meeting of conservation goals, a sufficient budget is allocated and the staff power is ensured.

Characteristics of Sanctuaries

  • In or to protect endangered species, sanctuaries are essential.

  • In sanctuaries, animals are protected within the natural environment.

  • This is a natural area that is reserved by a governmental body.

  • Some of the specific outside activities are allowed in sanctuaries.

  • Under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, the specifications of sanctuaries are determined.

  • In defining features of sanctuaries, the role of IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) is very important.

Significance of Sanctuaries

Wildlife sanctuaries are aimed to educate people about the relevance of protecting wildlife species. In protecting any injured and abandoned animals, sanctuaries are important. Enhancing natural safety for natural beings is one of the main objectives of considering a sanctuary. The maintenance team of sanctuaries helps in high protection against illegal trading, poaching and excessive cutting of trees.

Differences between National Parks and Sanctuaries

Bases of comparison National Park Sanctuaries
Ownership Some specific governmental agencies are responsible for maintaining and owning a national park. A private organization or even a governmental body owns a sanctuary.
Aim Protecting, reptiles, birds, and animals within a specific area and protecting some historic structures are another aim of a national park. Providing a safe and protected environment, especially to the endangered species
Boundaries There are neat and clean boundaries, that present the exact location of a national park. No such visible boundaries are found in relation to any sanctuaries.
Restriction Each and every national park is highly restricted. A person should have special permission for entering any national park. A very limited restriction is implemented in maintaining a sanctuary. The spaces are fully open to the public and therefore, maintenance of restrictions is quite difficult.
Human activity Not a single activity, related to human beings is allowed within any national park. Some human activities, such as cropping and farming are allowed in a sanctuary.

Table 1: Differences between national parks and sanctuaries


In the initial stages all the national parks were wildlife sanctuaries but after the conservative measurement adaptation by the government. Besides, providing protection to all the wildlife animals, wildlife sanctuaries as well as national parks are the most visited areas all over the world. These also provide unmatchable wilderness in various regions.


Q1. What is biodiversity?

Ans. Biodiversity refers to the living area of all kinds of living organisms that plays a significant role in the environment. It refers to the biological variety as well as variability of life that is found on this planet. It is also a measurement of genetic, species and ecosystem variation.

Q2. What is the basic difference between environment and ecology?

Ans. The interaction of physical, chemical, as well as biological components is called environment. The study of the interaction process of the different organisms and their surroundings is referred to as ecology.

Q3. What is called biomes?

Ans. It refers to large masses of land which is featured local climatic and vegetation properties. It has two types: terrestrial as well as aquatic.

Updated on: 18-Jan-2023

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