Multiple Goroutines

In computer programming, goroutines are lightweight threads that allow for concurrent execution of code in a single process. Goroutines are a key feature of the Go programming language, which was developed by Google in 2009. In this article, we'll explore the concept of multiple goroutines and how they can be used to improve the performance of your applications.

What is a Goroutine?

A goroutine is a function that is executed concurrently with other goroutines in a single Go process. Goroutines are similar to threads, but they are much lighter and more efficient. When a goroutine is created, it is assigned a small amount of memory and is scheduled to run by the Go scheduler. The scheduler is responsible for distributing the work among the available goroutines, which allows for efficient parallelism.

Creating Multiple Goroutines

One of the benefits of using goroutines is that they are easy to create. To create a new goroutine, you simply prefix the function call with the keyword "go". For example, consider the following code −


package main

import (

func main() {
   var wg sync.WaitGroup

   go func() {
   fmt.Println("main function")

func hello() {
   fmt.Println("hello from goroutine")

In the above program, we create a sync.WaitGroup and add one to its counter. We then start a new goroutine using an anonymous function that calls hello() and then signals the WaitGroup that it has completed by calling wg.Done().

The main() function then prints "main function" and waits for the WaitGroup counter to reach zero using wg.Wait(). This ensures that the program does not exit until the goroutine has completed.


When you run this program, you should see the following output −

main function
hello from goroutine

As you can see, the "hello" function was executed concurrently with the "main" function.

Benefits of Multiple Goroutines

The ability to create multiple goroutines allows for efficient parallelism, which can lead to significant performance improvements in your applications. For example, if you have a CPU-bound task that takes a long time to execute, you can split the work among multiple goroutines to take advantage of multiple CPU cores. This can result in much faster execution times.

In addition, goroutines are much lighter than threads, which means you can create many more of them without incurring significant overhead. This can be particularly useful for applications that need to handle many concurrent connections, such as web servers.

Best Practices for Using Multiple Goroutines

While goroutines can be very powerful, they also require careful consideration to avoid issues such as race conditions and deadlocks. Here are some best practices to keep in mind when using multiple goroutines −

  • Use channels to communicate between goroutines. Channels provide a safe and efficient way to pass data between goroutines without the risk of race conditions.

  • Avoid sharing mutable data between goroutines. If multiple goroutines need to access the same data, consider using a synchronization primitive such as a mutex to prevent race conditions.

  • Use the sync.WaitGroup type to wait for all goroutines to complete before exiting the program. This can help avoid issues such as prematurely terminating a goroutine before it has finished executing.


In summary, multiple goroutines are a powerful feature of the Go programming language that allow for efficient parallelism and improved performance in your applications. By following best practices such as using channels for communication and avoiding shared mutable data, you can take advantage of this feature while minimizing the risk of issues such as race conditions and deadlocks.

Updated on: 25-Apr-2023


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