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If Else If Else Statement in Lua

lua

--[ local variable definition --]
a = 100

--[ check the boolean condition --]

if( a == 10 )
then
   --[ if condition is true then print the following --]
   print("Value of a is 10" )
elseif( a == 20 )
then   
   --[ if else if condition is true --]
   print("Value of a is 20" )
elseif( a == 30 )
then
   --[ if else if condition is true  --]
   print("Value of a is 30" )
else
   --[ if none of the conditions is true --]
   print("None of the values is matching" )
end
print("Exact value of a is: ", a )

Lua Misc Operator

lua

a = "Hello "
b = "World"

print("Concatenation of string a with b is ", a..b )

print("Length of b is ",#b )

print("Length of b is ",#"Test" )

Common OS functions

lua

-- Date with format
io.write("The date is ", os.date("%m/%d/%Y"),"\n")

-- Date and time
io.write("The date and time is ", os.date(),"\n")

-- Time
io.write("The OS time is ", os.time(),"\n")

-- Wait for some time
for i=1,1000000 do
end

-- Time since Lua started
io.write("Lua started before ", os.clock(),"\n")

Other Common math Functions in Lua

lua

-- Floor
io.write("Floor of 10.5055 is ", math.floor(10.5055),"\n")

-- Ceil
io.write("Ceil of 10.5055 is ", math.ceil(10.5055),"\n")

-- Square root
io.write("Square root of 16 is ",math.sqrt(16),"\n")

-- Power
io.write("10 power 2 is ",math.pow(10,2),"\n")
io.write("100 power 0.5 is ",math.pow(100,0.5),"\n")

-- Absolute
io.write("Absolute value of -10 is ",math.abs(-10),"\n")

--Random
math.randomseed(os.time())
io.write("Random number between 1 and 100 is ",math.random(),"\n")

--Random between 1 to 100
io.write("Random number between 1 and 100 is ",math.random(1,100),"\n")

--Max
io.write("Maximum in the input array is ",math.max(1,100,101,99,999),"\n")

--Min
io.write("Minimum in the input array is ",math.min(1,100,101,99,999),"\n")

Trigonometric functions in Lua

lua

radianVal = math.rad(math.pi / 2)

io.write(radianVal,"\n")

-- Sin value of 90(math.pi / 2) degrees
io.write(string.format("%.1f ", math.sin(radianVal)),"\n")

-- Cos value of 90(math.pi / 2) degrees
io.write(string.format("%.1f ", math.cos(radianVal)),"\n")

-- Tan value of 90(math.pi / 2) degrees
io.write(string.format("%.1f ", math.tan(radianVal)),"\n")

-- Cosh value of 90(math.pi / 2) degrees
io.write(string.format("%.1f ", math.cosh(radianVal)),"\n")

-- Pi Value in degrees
io.write(math.deg(math.pi),"\n")

Object Oriented in Lua

lua

-- Meta class
Shape = {area = 0}

-- Base class method new

function Shape:new (o,side)
   o = o or {}
   setmetatable(o, self)
   self.__index = self
   side = side or 0
   self.area = side*side;
   return o
end

-- Base class method printArea

function Shape:printArea ()
   print("The area is ",self.area)
end

-- Creating an object
myshape = Shape:new(nil,10)

myshape:printArea()

Inheritance Program of Lua

lua

-- Meta class
Shape = {area = 0}

-- Base class method new

function Shape:new (o,side)
   o = o or {}
   setmetatable(o, self)
   self.__index = self
   side = side or 0
   self.area = side*side;
   return o
end

-- Base class method printArea

function Shape:printArea ()
   print("The area is ",self.area)
end

-- Creating an object
myshape = Shape:new(nil,10)
myshape:printArea()

Square = Shape:new()

-- Derived class method new

function Square:new (o,side)
   o = o or Shape:new(o,side)
   setmetatable(o, self)
   self.__index = self
   return o
end

-- Derived class method printArea

function Square:printArea ()
   print("The area of square is ",self.area)
end

-- Creating an object
mysquare = Square:new(nil,10)
mysquare:printArea()

Rectangle = Shape:new()

-- Derived class method new

function Rectangle:new (o,length,breadth)
   o = o or Shape:new(o)
   setmetatable(o, self)
   self.__index = self
   self.area = length * breadth
   return o
end

-- Derived class method printArea

function Rectangle:printArea ()
    print("The area of Rectangle is ",self.area)
end

-- Creating an object

myrectangle = Rectangle:new(nil,10,20)
myrectangle:printArea()

Garbage Collector in Lua

lua

mytable = {"apple", "orange", "banana"}

print(collectgarbage("count"))

mytable = nil

print(collectgarbage("count"))

print(collectgarbage("collect"))

print(collectgarbage("count"))

Debugging Example of Lua

lua

function newCounter ()
   local n = 0
   local k = 0
	
   return function ()
      k = n
      n = n + 1
      return n
   end
	
end

counter = newCounter ()

print(counter())
print(counter())

local i = 1

repeat
   name, val = debug.getupvalue(counter, i)
	
   if name then
      print ("index", i, name, "=", val)
		
      if(name == "n") then
         debug.setupvalue (counter,2,10)
      end
		
      i = i + 1
   end -- if
	
until not name

print(counter())

Debugging functions

lua

function myfunction ()
   print(debug.traceback("Stack trace"))
   print(debug.getinfo(1))
   print("Stack trace end")

   return 10
end

myfunction ()
print(debug.getinfo(1))

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