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Logical Design of IoT
The logical design of an Internet of Things (IoT) system entails the creation of an abstract representation of entities and processes, steering clear detailed implementation specifications. It relies on the utilization of Functional Blocks, Communication Models, and Communication APIs to effectively establish a functioning system. In this article, we will understand about them in detail.
In this article, we will discuss more about logical design of IoT. Let’s start.
IoT Functional Blocks
The Internet of Things (IoT) has several functional blocks. These blocks collectively contribute to its operation. These blocks contain the device, communication, services, application, management, & security components.
An application is an interface that facilitates users in accessing and analyzing the status of a system. It serves as a control system allowing users to monitor and evaluate system operations.
The management functional block encompasses a range of functions designed to oversee an IoT system. These functions enable effective administration and coordination of various system components.
The services functional block offers a set of capabilities, including device monitoring and control, data publication and deletion, as well as system restoration. These services enhance the functionality and utility of the IoT system.
The communication block plays a crucial role. It helps with facilitating communication between the client & the cloud−based server. It provides seamless data transmission & reception by employing proper protocols.
The security block is instrumental in defending an IoT system through several defensive measures implementation. These criteria encompass authorization mechanisms, data security protocols, authentication processes, & additional security elements such as two−step verification.
Devices within the IoT framework are responsible for sensing and monitoring functions, gathering data from the surrounding environment. These devices enable the collection of relevant information required for system operations.
In summary, an IoT system or application consists of distinct functional blocks that collectively contribute to its operation. Each block performs specific functions, ranging from device control and communication to service provision, user interaction, system management, and security enforcement.
IoT Communication Models
The Internet of Things (IoT) facilitates diverse communication models among entities within an IoT system. These communication models contain the following:
Response Request Model
The Request−Response Model is an essential framework consisting of two primary entities: the client & the server. The client can bring diverse forms such as a web application or a mobile application, & its objective can range from browsing web pages to accessing emails.
The Publish−Subscribe Model is a communication paradigm involving three primary entities: the publisher, consumer, and broker. In this model, the publisher is responsible for regularly disseminating messages, typically at predetermined intervals. For instance, in an Internet of Things (IoT) context, sensors can be regarded as publishers, delivering data as topics.
The broker serves as a central entity that manages various topics to which consumers can subscribe. Typically implemented as a server, the broker maintains the published messages from the publishers. Consumers, usually represented by IoT applications through which users interact, consume the data published by the publishers. Consumers can subscribe to one or more topics managed by the broker.
In the push−pull model, there exist three primary entities: the publisher, the consumer, and the queues. Publishers assume the responsibility of pushing messages to the queues. The data they generate is then stored in one or multiple queues.
One notable distinction between the push−pull model and the publish−subscribe model is the presence of message ordering. In the push−pull model, consumers are tasked with pulling messages directly from the queues and subsequently consuming them. Typically, a consumer in this context refers to an IoT application that facilitates user interactions.
Exclusive Pair Model
The Exclusive Pair Model operates based on two primary entities: the client and the server. These entities establish a full duplex connection to facilitate the exchange of data.
IoT Communication APIs
An Application Programming Interface (API) serves as a standardized interface for accessing server resources. They serve as intermediaries that enable interaction between IoT devices and the Internet also other interconnected elements within the network.
Within the realm of IoT, there exist two primary types of communication APIs:
REST−based Communication APIs
REST−based Communication APIs, short for Representational State Transfer, encompass a collection of architectural principles that facilitate the design of web services and web APIs. The core focus of REST lies in effectively managing a system's resources and ensuring seamless addressability and transfer of resource states. By adhering to REST's request−response model, APIs developed in this manner comply with specific architectural constraints that extend to components, connectors, and data elements within the system.
The REST architecture imposes certain constraints, including:
Client−Server Communication: The REST architecture operates on a request−response model, involving two essential entities: the client and the server. The client initiates requests, while the server processes these requests and returns corresponding responses.
Statelessness: REST adheres to the request−response model, resulting in stateless communication. It treats each request as an independent, standalone entity.
Caching Capability: The server's responses in REST can be cached by the client. This caching mechanism allows the client to efficiently retrieve previously requested responses, thereby enhancing response retrieval speed when needed.
Layered System: REST employs a layered architecture, ensuring a clear separation of responsibilities among different components. This separation allows for modularity and simplifies the implementation of various functionalities within the system.
Uniform Interface: REST provides a standardized and consistent interface that is applicable across diverse applications and devices. This uniformity facilitates interoperability and simplifies the development process by offering a common set of rules and conventions.
Code on Demand: REST supports the dynamic retrieval of executable code based on specific requests. This flexibility enables the server to modify the code that will be executed in response to a particular request, accommodating dynamic changes and adaptations within the system.
WebSocket−Based Communication APIs
WebSocket−based communication APIs facilitate full−duplex communication between clients and servers, adhering to an exclusive web pair communication model. This method of communication is characterized by its stateful nature, enabling ongoing and efficient interactions.
In conclusion, the logical design of an Internet of Things (IoT) system involves the use of functional blocks, communication models, and communication APIs. The functional blocks, including application, management, services, communication, security, and device components, collectively contribute to the operation of the IoT system. Communication models such as the request−response model, publish−subscribe model, push−pull model, and exclusive pair model enable effective communication between entities within the system. REST−based communication APIs follow the principles of Representational State Transfer, providing a standardized and uniform interface, while WebSocket−based communication APIs facilitate full−duplex communication for ongoing interactions. Understanding these components is crucial for building efficient and secure IoT systems.
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