Java & MySQL - SavePoint


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The new JDBC 3.0 Savepoint interface gives you the additional transactional control. Most modern DBMS, support savepoints within their environments such as Oracle's PL/SQL.

When you set a savepoint you define a logical rollback point within a transaction. If an error occurs past a savepoint, you can use the rollback method to undo either all the changes or only the changes made after the savepoint.

The Connection object has two new methods that help you manage savepoints −

  • setSavepoint(String savepointName) − Defines a new savepoint. It also returns a Savepoint object.

  • releaseSavepoint(Savepoint savepointName) − Deletes a savepoint. Notice that it requires a Savepoint object as a parameter. This object is usually a savepoint generated by the setSavepoint() method.

There is one rollback (String savepointName) method, which rolls back work to the specified savepoint.

The following example illustrates the use of a Savepoint object −

try{
   //Assume a valid connection object conn
   conn.setAutoCommit(false);
   Statement stmt = conn.createStatement();
   
   //set a Savepoint
   Savepoint savepoint1 = conn.setSavepoint("Savepoint1");
   String SQL = "INSERT INTO Employees " +
                "VALUES (106, 20, 'Rita', 'Tez')";
   stmt.executeUpdate(SQL);  
   //Submit a malformed SQL statement that breaks
   String SQL = "INSERTED IN Employees " +
                "VALUES (107, 22, 'Sita', 'Tez')";
   stmt.executeUpdate(SQL);
   // If there is no error, commit the changes.
   conn.commit();

}catch(SQLException se){
   // If there is any error.
   conn.rollback(savepoint1);
}

In this case, none of the above INSERT statement would success and everything would be rolled back.

Following is the example, which makes use of setSavepoint and rollback described.

This sample code has been written based on the environment and database setup done in the previous chapters.

Copy and paste the following example in TestApplication.java, compile and run as follows −

import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.DriverManager;
import java.sql.ResultSet;
import java.sql.SQLException;
import java.sql.Savepoint;
import java.sql.Statement;

public class TestApplication {
   static final String DB_URL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost/TUTORIALSPOINT";
   static final String USER = "guest";
   static final String PASS = "guest123";
   static final String QUERY = "SELECT id, first, last, age FROM Employees";
   static final String DELETE_QUERY = "DELETE FROM Employees WHERE ID = 8";
   static final String DELETE_QUERY_1 = "DELETE FROM Employees WHERE ID = 9";

   public static void printResultSet(ResultSet rs) throws SQLException{
      // Ensure we start with first row
      rs.beforeFirst();
      while(rs.next()){
         // Display values
         System.out.print("ID: " + rs.getInt("id"));
         System.out.print(", Age: " + rs.getInt("age"));
         System.out.print(", First: " + rs.getString("first"));
         System.out.println(", Last: " + rs.getString("last"));
      }
      System.out.println();
   }

   public static void main(String[] args) {
      // Open a connection
      try(Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection(DB_URL, USER, PASS);
         Statement stmt = conn.createStatement(
            ResultSet.TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE,
            ResultSet.CONCUR_UPDATABLE);				
      ) {		

         conn.setAutoCommit(false);
         ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(QUERY);
         System.out.println("List result set for reference....");
         printResultSet(rs);

         // delete row having ID = 8
         // But save point before doing so.
         Savepoint savepoint1 = conn.setSavepoint("ROWS_DELETED_1");
         System.out.println("Deleting row....");
         stmt.executeUpdate(DELETE_QUERY);  
         // Rollback the changes after save point 1.
         conn.rollback(savepoint1);

         // delete rows having ID = 9
         // But save point before doing so.
         conn.setSavepoint("ROWS_DELETED_2");
         System.out.println("Deleting row....");

         stmt.executeUpdate(DELETE_QUERY_1);  

         rs = stmt.executeQuery(QUERY);
         System.out.println("List result set for reference....");
         printResultSet(rs);

         // Clean-up environment
         rs.close();

      } catch (SQLException e) {
         e.printStackTrace();
      } 
   }
}

Now, let us compile the above example as follows −

C:\>javac TestApplication.java
C:\>

When you run TestApplication, it produces the following result −

C:\>java TestApplication
List result set for reference....
ID: 1, Age: 23, First: Zara, Last: Ali
ID: 2, Age: 30, First: Mahnaz, Last: Fatma
ID: 3, Age: 35, First: Zaid, Last: Khan
ID: 4, Age: 33, First: Sumit, Last: Mittal
ID: 5, Age: 40, First: John, Last: Paul
ID: 7, Age: 20, First: Sita, Last: Singh
ID: 8, Age: 20, First: Rita, Last: Tez
ID: 9, Age: 20, First: Sita, Last: Singh

Deleting row....
Deleting row....
List result set for reference....
ID: 1, Age: 23, First: Zara, Last: Ali
ID: 2, Age: 30, First: Mahnaz, Last: Fatma
ID: 3, Age: 35, First: Zaid, Last: Khan
ID: 4, Age: 33, First: Sumit, Last: Mittal
ID: 5, Age: 40, First: John, Last: Paul
ID: 7, Age: 20, First: Sita, Last: Singh
ID: 8, Age: 20, First: Rita, Last: Tez
C:\>
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