Java Tutorial

Java Control Statements

Object Oriented Programming

Java Built-in Classes

Java File Handling

Java Error & Exceptions

Java Multithreading

Java Synchronization

Java Networking

Java Collections

Java Interfaces

Java Data Structures

Java Collections Algorithms

Advanced Java

Java Miscellaneous

Java APIs & Frameworks

Java Class References

Java Useful Resources

Java - Modifier Types



Modifiers are keywords that you add to those definitions to change their meanings. Java language has a wide variety of modifiers, including the following −

To use a modifier, you include its keyword in the definition of a class, method, or variable. The modifier precedes the rest of the statement, as in the following example.

Example

public class className {
   // ...
}

private boolean myFlag;
static final double weeks = 9.5;
protected static final int BOXWIDTH = 42;

public static void main(String[] arguments) {
   // body of method
}

Access Control Modifiers

Java provides a number of access modifiers to set access levels for classes, variables, methods and constructors. The four access levels are −

  • Visible to the package, the default. No modifiers are needed.
  • Visible to the class only (private).
  • Visible to the world (public).
  • Visible to the package and all subclasses (protected).

Non-Access Modifiers

Java provides a number of non-access modifiers to achieve many other functionality.

  • The static modifier for creating class methods and variables.

  • The final modifier for finalizing the implementations of classes, methods, and variables.

  • The abstract modifier for creating abstract classes and methods.

  • The synchronized and volatile modifiers, which are used for threads.

Example

Following is the example, showcasing usage of access control modifiers in a program.

public class ConsDemo {
   public static void main(String args[]) {
      MyClass t1 = new MyClass( 10 );
      MyClass t2 = new MyClass( 20 );
      System.out.println(t1.x + " " + t2.x);
   }
}

This would produce the following result −

10 20

What is Next?

In the next section, we will be discussing about Basic Operators used in Java Language. The chapter will give you an overview of how these operators can be used during application development.

Advertisements