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# How to Determine Magnetic Flux Density?

The *magnetic flux density* is the measure of amount of magnetic flux in each square meter of the magnetic field. Therefore, the magnetic flux density is defined as the magnetic flux passing normally (at 90°) per unit area and is denoted by B, i.e.,

**Magnetic flux density**,

$$B=\frac{\phi}{A}$$

Where,

*Φ*is the magnetic flux,*A*is area normal (or perpendicular) to flux.

The magnetic flux density is a *vector quantity *i.e. it possesses both *magnitude* and *direction*.

## Unit of Magnetic Flux Density

As we know, the magnetic flux density is

$$B=\frac{\phi}{A}=\frac{Weber}{meter^{2}}=Wb/m^{2}=Tesla(T)$$

Therefore, the magnetic flux density is measured 𝑊𝑏/𝑚^{2} or Tesla (T), named in honour of *Nikola Tesla*.

**Important **– The magnetic flux density can also be given in terms of magnetic intensity (H) as follows,

$$\mathrm{Magnetic\:fulx\:density\:\left ( B \right ) \propto\: Magnetic\:intensity (H))}$$

$$B=\mu\:H=\mu_{0}\mu_{r}H$$

## Numerical Example

Determine the flux density in an air gap of cross-section area of 25 cm^{2} when a total flux of 100 μWb passes through it perpendicularly.

**Solution** −

Magnetic flux density,

$$B=\frac{\phi}{A}=\frac{100\times\:10^{-6}}{25\times\:10^{-4}}$$

$$\Rightarrow\:B=0.04\:Wb/m^{2}=4\times\:10^{-2}\:Wb/m^{2}$$

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