# How to check if a character column only contains alphabets in R data frame?

To check if a character column only contains alphabets in R data frame, we can follow the below steps −

• First of all, create a data frame with a character column.
• Then, use grepl function to check if all the values in the column contains only alphabets.

## Example 1

Let's create a data frame as shown below −

Live Demo

x<-sample(c("India","UK","USA","Japan","China2"),20,replace=TRUE)
df1<-data.frame(x)
df1

On executing, the above script generates the below output(this output will vary on your system due to randomization) −

   x
1 India
2 USA
3 China2
4 USA
5 Japan
6 UK
7 China2
8 Japan
9 USA
10 Japan
11 Japan
12 Japan
13 Japan
14 India
15 Japan
16 UK
17 India
18 UK
19 India
20 USA

## Check whether data frame column contains only alphabets

Using grepl function to check whether column x contains values only having alphabets −

Live Demo

x<-sample(c("India","UK","USA","Japan","China2"),20,replace=TRUE)
df1<-data.frame(x)
grepl("^[A-Za-z]+$",df1$x)

## Output

[1] TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE
[13] TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE

## Example2

Let’s create a data frame as shown below −

Live Demo

y<-sample(c("1","23","14","11","1F","3"),20,replace=TRUE)
df2<-data.frame(y)
df2

On executing, the above script generates the below output(this output will vary on your system due to randomization) −

   y
1  11
2  1F
3  1
4  11
5  23
6  1F
7  11
8  23
9  14
10 14
11 1F
12 14
13 1F
14 11
15 1
16 23
17 1F
18 1
19 3
20 23

## Check whether data frame column contains only alphabets

Using grepl function to check whether column y contains values only having alphabets −

Live Demo

y<-sample(c("1","23","14","11","1F","3"),20,replace=TRUE)
df2<-data.frame(y)
grepl("^[A-Za-z]+$",df2$y)

## Output

[1] FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE
[13] FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE