Gigabit Ethernet can be deployed using both copper wires and fiber optic cables. Since they target to achieve data rates of 1 gigabit per second (1 Gbps), they require encoding – decoding a bit within a nanosecond. This was achieved first in the 1000BASE-CX version.
The popular varieties of fast Ethernet are 1000Base-SX, 1000Base-LX, 1000BASE-T and 1000Base-CX.
Uses four pairs of unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cables
Generally uses Category 5/5e UTP, but can also use Category 6 and Category 7
Maximum segment length is 100 meters
Uses shielded twisted-pair cables (STP) with DE-9 or 8P8C connector
Uses 2 pairs of STP
Maximum segment length is 25 meters
Uses a pair of fiber optic cables of a shorter wavelength having 770 – 860 nm diameter
The maximum segment length varies from 220 – 550 meters depending upon the fiber properties.
Uses multimode fibers
Uses a pair of fiber optic cables of a longer wavelength having 1270 – 1355 nm diameter
Maximum segment length is 500 meters
Can cover distances up to 5 km
Uses both single-mode and multimode fibers