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Data Encryption: Types, Algorithms, Techniques, and Methods
Consider the electronic digital media and the millions of online messages that travel up and down each day. Like the registered post facility that ensures safe delivery, digital authorities need reliable methods to ensure privacy and non-interference. Safety measures assume greater importance in Ecommerce and Banking, where money changes hands. All is not lost, even though cybercrime is growing with data encryption. Stealing passwords and account numbers enable fraudsters to misuse hard-earned money. Data encryption refers to the change of plaintext to scrambled text with a code that is unreadable. Scrambled text is also known as ciphertext. Decryption means changing the scrambled text back to the original plaintext.
Types of Encryption
Sensing the urgent and severe dangers of misuse of information, such Encryption is applied everywhere. Encryption works on any kind of document, file, and message. The vast online networks today contain a great variety of communication methods. Encryption applies to all. Only some communication channels are so secure. Emails do not carry strict security compared to defense departments, for instance. Rising cybercrime levels have now resulted in Encryption being adopted by mega businesses, even smaller organizations, and individuals. Without Encryption, nothing would be secret, and cybercrime would become very common!
Algorithms for Encryption and decryption
Algorithms of many types represent the mathematical calculations required for Encryption. Encrypting and decrypting data needs keys, public keys known to everybody, and secret and private keys. Symmetric methods require a single key known to both sender and recipient. Asymmetric methods have public and private keys, which ensures greater security levels. Without the keys, neither sending nor receiving personal data would be possible.
Functions of Encryption
Encrypted data security protects in emergencies like losing a device containing precious private company data. Encrypted data in the drive remains secure despite being lost or misplaced. Encryption brings confidence in work and communication since data is relatively safe. During data transmission and at rest, data breaches cannot occur.
Privacy for personal and official data is assured, which means that illegal access is denied, just like essential buildings being heavily guarded by sentries with weapons. Even internet service providers cannot see what the messages contain. Hackers and spammers wish to read the notes, but they cannot. Encryption makes such a significant difference.
Specific rules need to be followed where personal information is entered. Such data must be encrypted according to government and industry regulations. GDPR, HIPAA, PCI-DSS, and organizations like them guide and regulate Encryption.
Valid ownership of data and their origin is validated through the encryption keys that receive an SSL certificate. In an ocean of websites, such certification indicates authenticity.
2 Data Encryption Techniques
Among the several kinds of Data Encryption Techniques, 3 have gained immense importance - symmetric, asymmetric, and hashing. There have several types too.
Symmetric Encryption requires a single secret key known to the sender and receiver. This procedure succeeds in securing systems with fewer dangers of intrusion. This method works fast, but both sides must take pains to ensure the secrecy of the key.
Asymmetric Encryption uses two keys with mathematical linking, public and private. Encryption and decryption happen with separate keys for greater safety. Asymmetric means that the keys are dissimilar with large paired numbers. Everyone knows the public key, but only the recipient knows the secret key and nobody else.
Hashing indicates an exclusive signature of a certain length that represents a message. Hashing helps to verify data. Since each message has a different hash, any changes made can be detected. A hashed message cannot be decoded or reverted to the original state.
Leading Encryption Algorithms Methods
An encryption key transforms the plaintext into scrambled data or ciphertext through the algorithm. The scrambled data can be changed back to the plaintext with the right decryption key. Among several different encryption algorithms widely used globally, check out a few important ones.
The RSA robust and trustworthy encryption standard solves numerous data protection issues. An asymmetric encryption algorithm, RSA factorizes two large prime numbers and their product. Decoding the message is possible with the two numbers. RSA is important for digital signatures. A disadvantage is the loss of speed when Encryption concerns mega data.
Triple Data Encryption Algorithm (3DEA)
Usually known as 3DES, the method encrypts data thrice with the Data Encryption Standard (DES) cipher. Following the symmetric key method, a single key encrypts and decrypts data. It works proficiently in the Feistel network with exact processes. 3DES was widely used before AES. 3DES was used for EMV payment systems, Firefox, and Microsoft Office. 3DES probably will end in 2023 or 2024 because better options have been found.
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
Governments and large organizations often use AES, which suits tough encryption tasks. AES uses 128-, 192- and 256-bit keys. Believed to be unbeatable, brute Force could disrupt it.
After hackers successfully invaded DES, triple DES used the DES algorithm thrice on the data. Triple DES may gradually disappear though it solved many problems. Triple DES encrypts ATM PINS and UNIX passwords successfully.
Intended to replace DES, Blowfish is a symmetric tool. It encrypts individual messages through 64-bit blocks. It is fast, pliant, and firm. More attractive since it is free, Blowfish belongs to the public domain. It is used in E-commerce, password, and payment systems.
Following Blowfish, Twofish also has symmetric Encryption and is free of licensing. It can decipher 128-bit data blocks. It suits software and hardware tasks, encrypting data in 16 rounds, irrespective of key size. Working very fast, it is the solution for numerous file and folder encryption tasks of the present day.
Personal devices, emails, attachments, and various documents, large and small, have a savior called Encryption that ensures privacy. External devices and portable media increase the risk of data loss, just like networking in public places. Decryption is the final stage of opening the message into a readable form. While millions of messages are encrypted daily, fraudsters and hackers are busy with their arsenal. Brute Force tries several keys to open the encrypted message till one fits. Data loss prevention techniques need to be taken seriously since many dangers abound from leaks and misuse. The cat-and-mouse game continues with a little bit of luck if mega data is safe and sound.
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