A compiler translates the code written in one language to some other language without changing the meaning of the program. It is also expected that a compiler should make the target code efficient and optimized in terms of time and space.
Compiler design principles provide an in-depth view of translation and optimization process. Compiler design covers basic translation mechanism and error detection & recovery. It includes lexical, syntax, and semantic analysis as front end, and code generation and optimization as back-end.