# CAST function in Cassandra

## Introduction to the CAST Function in Cassandra

Cassandra is a highly scalable and distributed NoSQL database that is well-suited for storing and managing large amounts of data. One of the key features of Cassandra is its powerful query language, CQL (Cassandra Query Language), which allows you to easily retrieve and manipulate data stored in Cassandra.

One useful function in CQL is the CAST function, which allows you to change the data type of a column or expression. This function is particularly useful when you need to perform calculations or comparisons on data that have different data types.

In this article, we will discuss the CAST function in Cassandra and show you how to use it in your CQL queries.

## Understanding the Syntax of the CAST Function

### Syntax

The CAST function in Cassandra has a very specific syntax that must be followed. The syntax of the CAST function is −

CAST ( expression AS data_type )


Where "expression" is the column or expression that you want to cast, and "data_type" is the data type to which you want to cast the expression.

### Example

For example, if you have a column "temperature" of type int and you want to cast it to type float, you would use the following CQL query −

SELECT CAST (temperature AS float) FROM mytable;


This query would return the values of the "temperature" column cast as floats.

## Examples of Using the CAST Function

Now that we have seen the syntax of the CAST function, let's look at some examples of how to use it in real-world scenarios −

### Casting a Column from int to float

SELECT CAST (temperature AS float) FROM mytable;


This query casts the "temperature" column from int to float. This can be useful if you want to perform calculations on the temperature column that require floating-point precision.

### Casting a Column from Timestamp to Date

SELECT CAST (timestamp AS date) FROM mytable;


This query casts the "timestamp" column from timestamp to date. This can be useful if you only need to know the date of a certain event, and don't need the time component of the timestamp.

### Casting a Column from Varchar to Ascii

SELECT CAST (name AS ascii) FROM mytable;


This query casts the "name" column from varchar to ascii. This can be useful if you need to ensure that the data in the name column is stored in the ASCII character set, which is a smaller character set than Unicode.

### Using the CAST function with a Function

SELECT CAST (now() AS timestamp) FROM mytable;


This query uses the CAST function to cast the result of the now() function, which returns the current timestamp, to a timestamp. This is useful if you want to store the current timestamp in a specific format.

## Considerations and Limitations

It's important to keep in mind that when using the CAST function, data loss may occur if the data in the column cannot be accurately converted to the new data type. Additionally, if you cast a column from a type with lower precision to a type with higher precision, you may end up with unexpected results due to rounding errors. So it is important to use the CAST function wisely.

Another thing to keep in mind is that the CAST function is not supported for all data types in Cassandra. The data types that can be casted are as follows −

• Cast from ascii, bigint, boolean, decimal, double, float, inet, int, smallint, text, time, timestamp, and uuid to varchar

• Cast from bigint, int, and smallint to varint

• Cast from decimal and double to float

• Cast from int and smallint to tinyint

• Cast from timestamp and time to date

It is also worth noting that the CAST function is not supported in all CQL statements. For example, you cannot use the CAST function in the SELECT clause of a Materialized View. It is also not supported when you are performing an update on a counter column.

## Real-life examples of using CAST in Cassandra

Real-world examples of using the CAST function in Cassandra can include −

• Storing temperatures in an int column and then casting them to float when performing calculations that require floating-point precision.

SELECT temperature, (temperature - 32) * (5/9) AS celsius FROM temperature_table;

• Storing timestamps in a column and then casting them to a date when querying for events that occurred on a specific date.

SELECT event, CAST(timestamp AS date) as event_date FROM event_table WHERE event_date = '2022-01-01';

• Storing IP addresses in an inet column and then casting them to varchar when performing string operations on them.

SELECT CAST(ip_address AS varchar), hostname FROM ip_table WHERE hostname LIKE '%google%';

• Storing prices in a decimal column and then casting them to a float when performing calculations on them.

SELECT CAST(price AS float), product FROM price_table WHERE price > 20.0;

• When storing a time, but you just need the hour and minute not the rest of it.

SELECT CAST(time_column AS time) as Hour_Minute FROM table


These are just a few examples of how the CAST function can be used in real-world scenarios. The key is to understand the data types of the columns in your tables, and to know when it is appropriate to cast them to a different data type in order to perform a specific operation or query.

## Conclusion

The CAST function in Cassandra is a powerful tool that allows you to change the data type of a column or expression. It can be used in a variety of situations, such as performing calculations or comparisons on data with different data types. However, it's important to keep in mind that the CAST function has limitations and can result in data loss if not used correctly.

This article provides a good starting point for understanding and using the CAST function in your CQL queries, but it is always a good idea to consult the Cassandra documentation for the latest information.