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Bluetooth is a technology that wirelessly connects with other systems using the radio frequency that uses 2.4 GHz frequency. Bluetooth is accessible up to 10 meters for sharing documents, media, photos, and videos. It avoids the usage of wires making it a wireless technology. It provides a secured data transmission, so the device needs to be paired before any transmission of data. Though a secure connection, the distance for transmission is less compared to today’s emerging technology. Bluetooth divides the data into packets and transmits it through the channels which use frequency hopping spread spectrum.
Bluetooth helps to share data between two fixed and mobile devices without the usage of wires. In the Bluetooth network or piconets, the masters and slave model is implemented for the data transfer. The master can have a maximum of seven slaves but the slave can connect to only one master. The connection process involves three states namely.
Inquiry State − To discover the devices available.
Connecting State − It is a process of connecting or pairing with the other device.
Connection State − The Complete connection is made and is now ready for sharing the data. In this connection state, there are different types of modes as follows.
BLE or Bluetooth is a low-energy device and the modes of Bluetooth can be chosen from the list.
The master unit makes the connection to the device by sending an Inquiry message and also sends the page message when the target address of the device is not known. When the device knows nothing about the destination devices like printers or fax machines then the inquiry message is used to get the details of the unknown address. So this inquiry message also needs special training to get all the replies.
It is the normal mode when the connections are established between the devices and are actively performing the transfers of data.
It is the default mode in which the devices can discover and connect to desirable devices.
When the connection is established between the devices, it is called master mode.
Auto Connect Master Mode
This mode automatically connects to the devices which are already paired. When the power is on it connects and reconnects when the connection is lost.
This mode permits other devices to request for connection or connect to the devices.
During this mode, any form of request from other devices or connections is rejected.
Bluetooth Sleep Mode
The main purpose of Bluetooth sleep mode is to reduce power consumption by extending the battery life. Approximately 40 seconds are assigned to sniff, hold, and park mode.
This mode is a power-saving node operation. Sniff mode is application dependent and the slave only responds to the master at a particular set of intervals. So, it will be idle or sleep state and reducing the rate and the power consumption.
It is also a power-saving mode. Here, a slave may request to be placed in HOLD mode by the master or the master unit may force the slave to do it. When a unit leaves the HOLD state, data transfer immediately resumes from the HOLD state to the active state. The HOLD is utilized for a temporary period that also manages low-power devices.
Connection PARK Mode
It is considered the deepest power-saving mode. In this mode, the master can command the slaves to Park itself to an inactive state and when the master again changes the command to normal it will switch to an active state. It remains synchronized to the piconet even when it is not in any traffic and it also listens to the devices after giving up their MAC (Medis Access Protocol).
Advantages of Bluetooth
It offers data transmission without an internet connection and is helpful for areas with minimal internet range.
Bluetooth comes in a wide range of devices like headphones, Cellular phones, Laptops, wireless mice, wireless keyboards, and Tabs.
It is connected via radio frequency and avoids any type of obstacles within its range.
The Availability and usability are easy.
The Price is low and comes compact and in shape.
Disadvantages of Bluetooth
Though it offers short-range data transmission, the time taken to transmit is high when compared to the current technology like Wi-Fi and LAN through optic fiber.
The number of devices is limited for making connections with the particular device and has a high risk of security issues.
In the Bluetooth network, the connections are wireless and short range of 2.5 mill watts. There are different modes from the connection process to data transfer. There may be data lost in the Bluetooth connections. Depending on the master and slave units, the interior functions and processes can be determined.
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