The city of Bijapur was first ruled by Kalyani Chalukyas during the period of 10th and 11th centuries and the city was known as Vijaypura. In 13th century, the kings of Khilji dynasty ruled the city. The rulers of Bahmani sultanate of Gulbarga captured Bijapur in 1347AD and the city was renamed as Bijapur.
Yusuf Adil Shah was the son of Sultan of Turkey and was purchased by Mahmud Gavan, prime minister of Bidar. At that time Bidar was ruled by Sultan Muhammad III. Yusuf showed bravery and loyalty to protect the sultanate and so he was given the governorship of Bijapur.
Yusuf built Arkilla fort or Bijapur Fort and Faroukh Mahal whose designers were brought from Persia, Turkey, and Rome. Later, Bahmani kingdom was divided into five small kingdoms and Bijapur was one of them. Seeking the opportunity, Yusuf declared himself the ruler of Bijapur and established Adil Shahi dynasty.
Ibrahim Adil Shah succeeded Yusuf Adil Shah in 1510. Ibrahim was a minor when his father died so his mother ruled the kingdom and fought the enemies who wanted to capture Bijapur. Ibrahim built Jami masjid within the fort.
Ali Adil Shah I succeeded Ibrahim Adil Shah. He constructed his tomb called Ali Rouza along with Gagan Mahal and Chand Bawdi. Ali also did not have a son so his nephew Ibrahim II succeeded. Since Ibrahim was a minor so the kingdom was protected by Chand Bibi.
Ibrahim II was a good ruler who created harmony between Hindus and Muslims and between Shia and Sunni Muslims. That’s the reason the king came to be known as Jagadguru Badshah. The king built many temples and he was also the builder of Gol Gumbaz. A gun was developed during his reign whose length is 4.45m. During the last days of his life, his wife Bariba ruled the kingdom.
Adil Shah II was the adopted son and successor of Ibrahim II. Due to the problem of successorship internally, the kingdom was weakened. This led to the defeat of Afzal Khan by Maratha ruler Shivaji who plundered the city 11 times. Shivaji signed a treaty to stop the capturing of Karnataka. After his death, Aurangzeb attacked and captured Bijapur in 1686.