# Best Visualizations of Machine Learning Algorithms

## Introduction

Machine learning algorithms are complex and often difficult to interpret and understand. Data visualization can help simplify the complex results generated by these algorithms and make them more accessible to experts and non-experts alike. In this article, we have discussed some of the best visualizations for machine learning algorithms and provided real-time examples.

Machine learning algorithms are sophisticated mathematical models that use statistical methods to find patterns in data and generate predictions. Visualizations can shed light on how these algorithms function and the connections they find in the data, even though their inner workings can be challenging to comprehend.

## Best ML Visualizations

In this article, we have discussed several different visualizations, such as scatter plots, line charts, box plots, heat maps, violin plots, decision trees, principal component analysis, time series plots, parallel coordinates, word clouds, and choropleth maps. We have briefly overviewed each visualization and a practical application example.

### Scatter Plots

Scatter plots are a straightforward but useful visualization method for showing correlations between two variables. The relationship between a dependent variable (the variable being predicted) and one or more independent variables is frequently shown via scatter plots in machine learning (the variables used to make the prediction).

• For example, age would be the independent variable in a scatter plot illustrating the association between a person's income and age, and income would be the dependent variable. Each point on the scatter plot would represent a distinct person, and the plot would demonstrate the relationship between these two factors.

• Use a scatter plot to display the correlation between a person's height and weight. The x-axis would represent height and weight by the y-axis. Each person's data point would be plotted on the graph, enabling a rapid visual evaluation of the correlation between the two variables.

### Decision Trees

The decision-making process of a machine learning algorithm is displayed using decision trees, a visualization tool. A hierarchical structure with nodes and branches is referred to as a decision tree. Each branch reflects the result of a choice or test made about one of the input variables, whereas each node represents the decision or test itself.

Regression analysis and classification are two examples of sophisticated decision-making processes that can be represented using decision trees. It is feasible to determine how the algorithm concluded by following the decision tree branches.

### Use a Decision Tree

• To comprehend how a machine learning algorithm decides whether to approve a loan application. A decision-making tree will display the decision-making variables and how they affect the result. Decision trees can be used to enhance the effectiveness of the algorithm and assist in identifying the key factors in the loan approval process.

### Heatmaps

A heatmap is a visualization method for displaying the relationship between two or more variables. Different colors denote varying degrees of correlation in heatmaps, which use color coding to depict the relationship between the variables.

A heatmap could display the correlation between an individual's age, income, and educational attainment. The correlation between these variables would be displayed on a heatmap, with the darkest colors denoting the highest relationships.

• A heatmap can be used to examine the relationships between various genes in a gene expression dataset. The genes would be listed along the x and y axes, and the color of each cell would indicate how strongly the two genes were correlated.

### Cluster Analysis

The connected data points are grouped together based on shared characteristics using a cluster analysis visualisation technique. Cluster analysis is widely used in unsupervised learning, where the goal is to discover patterns in the data without knowing the relationships between the variables beforehand.

Heatmaps or scatter plots, in which each cluster is represented by a different color or form, can be used to display cluster analysis.

### Principal Component Analysis (PCA)

To reduce the dimensionality of a dataset, principal component analysis (PCA), a visualisation technique, is applied. PCA identifies the most important variables in a dataset and combines them into fewer new variables.

PCA can be shown using scatter plots or heatmaps, where each main component is represented by a different axis.

• Customer data can be analyzed using PCA to find recurring patterns or groupings. PCA may find the most crucial variables and integrate them into main components by lowering the dimensionality of the data. This can simplify constructing focused marketing initiatives by assisting in identifying the most significant client categories.

### Neural Networks

A neural network is a machine learning algorithm that mimics the human brain's organization. Layers of connected nodes carrying out a certain mathematical function make up neural networks.

Diagrams showing the network's structure can be used to illustrate neural networks, with each layer denoted by a different color or form.

### Support Vector Machines (SVM)

Machine learning algorithms called support vector machines (SVM) are used for classification and regression analysis. Finding the hyperplane that best divides the data into distinct classes is how SVM operates.

Using scatter plots or heatmaps, SVM can be seen, with the hyperplane depicted by a line or plane dividing the data into various regions.

In addition to the visualization techniques mentioned above, there are many other visualization tools and techniques that can be used in machine learning, including −

### Time Series Plots

With time series charts, you may visualize the relationship between a variable and time. Plots of time series can be used to spot trends, seasonal patterns, and other patterns over time.

• To discover data trends, such as whether the stock price rises or falls, time series graphs can be employed. The development of a company's stock price can be shown in a time series plot. We can examine how the price of the stock varies over time by creating a chart with time as the x-axis and stock price as the y-axis.

### Parallel Coordinates

High-dimensional data is visualized using parallel coordinates, a visualization technique. With parallel coordinates, each variable is represented by a separate axis, and the data points are plotted as a line that goes through each axis.

• It is possible to examine customer reviews for various products using parallel coordinates. To find the most frequent themes or subjects mentioned in customer evaluations, parallel coordinates might be used. We can find patterns or group reviews with similar characteristics by charting the review data along each axis.

### Word Clouds

A text collection can be visualized using word clouds, illustrating certain words' frequency. Each word is represented as a single element in a word cloud, with the size of the word indicating its frequency.

• The most popular subjects addressed on social media can be analyzed using a word cloud. Word clouds can identify the most crucial concerns or social media conversational topics. We can generate a word cloud that displays the most frequently discussed subjects by scanning social media posts and examining the frequency of different words.

### Choropleth Maps

A choropleth map is a visualization tool used to depict how a variable is distributed throughout a geographic area. Different colors on choropleth maps signify different degrees of the variable, represented by color coding.

• A choropleth map can show how people are distributed throughout a nation's various areas. Plotting the population numbers for each region allows us to see how the population varies across the country. Since choropleth maps can identify areas with high or low population densities, they are helpful for city planning and resource distribution.

## Conclusion

In conclusion, data visualisation is an essential tool for understanding and interpreting machine learning algorithms. We can analyze complex data to find patterns and trends with the correct visualizations. Whether you are a data scientist or a business professional, understanding these visualisations may help you make better decisions based on the data provided by machine learning algorithms. By incorporating these photographs into your data analysis workflow, you may be able to comprehend your data better and make decisions based on the revelations acquired.

Updated on: 29-Mar-2023

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