## Benzoin Condensation

Updated on 15-Dec-2022 12:47:18
Introduction The formation of carbon-carbon (C-C) bonds is a key process in benzoin condensation. It is accomplished by producing an acyl anion equivalent from 1 aldehyde molecule and then adding it to another. Usually, a cyanide ion catalyses the process. The 1$\mathrm{^{st}}$ intermediate is cyanohydrin anion, which is the precursor to the acyl anion equivalent. Plants contain cyanohydrins as glycosides. In our bodies, a process very similar to benzoin condensation occurs, although it does not include cyanohydrin intermediates and is not catalysed by cyanide ions. The thiazolium moiety of the coenzyme thiamine pyrophosphate catalyses it (TPP). Definition and Meaning of ... Read More

## Benedict's test

Updated on 14-Dec-2022 16:33:05
Introduction To assess metabolically reducing sugars, they are commonly determined in the food sector, biological research, and biopharmaceutical quality control. Common detection techniques are complicated, costly, or very polluting. Benedict's test (BT) for reducing sugars for value determination of glucose in urination was devised by Stanley R. Benedict. This method is still utilized in clinical, industrial, as well as laboratory settings to evaluate the qualitative makeup of reducing sugars. Benedict's reagents were designed to quickly identify reducing sugars by a colour change using non-corrosive steady alkaline chemicals. Although the method initially just showed the variation of glucose in a test ... Read More

## Beckmann Rearrangement

Updated on 14-Dec-2022 16:01:51
Introduction To change oximes into amides, the Beckmann rearrangement is a reaction that is used widely. Since its discovery, the reaction's safety & viability have significantly improved. This study focuses on the development of the Beckmann rearrangement and how it has been used to improve the present synthesis of mass-produced, widely accessible molecules that were previously made using expensive, poisonous, and challenging to obtain reagents. The mid-1880s saw the discovery of the Beckmann rearrangement by scientist Ernst Otto Beckmann. As a result of the process, oximes are transformed into the equivalent amides, which then allow the nitrogen atom from the ... Read More

## Birch Reduction Mechanism

Updated on 13-Oct-2022 11:19:47
Introduction The Birch reduction is a reaction where arenes are transformed into cyclohexadiene. Prof. Arthur J. Birch, an Australian chemist who determined the product's structure in the reduction reaction as a 1, 4-cyclohexadiene derivative in 1944, gave the reaction the name "Birch reduction." For the reduction of benzene (inactivated arenes), birch reductions generally use alkali metals (e.g., Li, Na, or K), which dissolve in Liq. ammonia to provide a solvated electron. Hence, the resulting solution is an astounding hue of blue, even though given metals are only faintly soluble in Liq. ammonia. The object has a deep blue colour because ... Read More

## Balz schiemann reaction mechanism

Updated on 13-Oct-2022 11:19:47
Introduction The Balz-Schiemann (BS) reaction was one of the first procedures for producing fluorinated aromatic compounds but is still commonly used today. The thermal breakdown of diazonium tetrafluoroborate by diazotization of the corresponding aromatic amines introduces a fluorine atom into aromatic rings in this process. This reaction is notably essential for the synthesis of fluorinated aromatic compounds, whose breakdown in the lack of solvent generally yields a reasonably excellent yield of aromatic fluorides. The BS reaction has been thoroughly studied or shown to be beneficial in the synthesis of aromatic halides. What is Balz Schiemann Reaction ? The BS reaction ... Read More
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