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# a) Define electric current. What is the SI unit of electric current?b) One coulomb of charge flows through any cross-section of a conductor in 1 second. What is the current flowing through the conductor?c) Which instrument is used to measure electric current? How should it be connected in a circuit?d) What is the conventional direction of the flow of electric current? How does it differ from the direction of the flow of electrons?e) A flash of lightning carries 10C of charge which flows for 0.01s. What is the current? If the voltage is 10MV, what is the energy?

a) **Electric current** is defined as the flow of electric charge in a conductor. It is measured in **amperes**. Its symbol is A.

b) **One coulomb** of charge flows through any cross-section of a conductor in **1 second** is one **ampere**.

Mathematically, 1 A = 1 C/s.

c) **Ammeter** is used to measure electric current. To find the amount of current flowing through the circuit, it must be connected in series and must have less resistance.

d) The **conventional current** flows from the positive terminal of a cell to the negative terminal. However, the actual electron flow is from the **negative terminal to the positive terminal** of a cell, which is the opposite direction of that of a conventional current.

e) ** Given:** The charge of lightning = 10C.

The charge has flowed for = 0.01s

The voltage of the lightning = 10MV

** To find:** We have to find the current and the energy of the lightning.

__Solution:__

We know that,

$I=\ \frac{Q}{ \begin{array}{l}

t\\

\end{array}}$

=> $I=\ \frac{10}{ \begin{array}{l}

0.01\\

\end{array}}$

=> I = 1000A

We know that,

$v=\ \frac{W}{ \begin{array}{l}

C\\

\end{array}}$

=> 10,000,000 = $\frac{W}{ \begin{array}{l}

10\\

\end{array}}$

=> W = 10^{7}J or 100MJ.