Is it possible to use Python modules in Octave?

There is no straightforward way to do this. But it is possible to run a Python program and parse the output. You can execute any shell command using the function system (cmd, flag). The second argument is optional. If it is present, the output of the command is returned by system as a string. If it is not supplied, any output from the command is printed, with the standard output filtered through the pager. For example,

output = system ("python /path/to/your/python/", 1)