What is the word OFFER and its rules?

An offer is a kind of promise between the parties, which depends on a certain act/forbearance given. In other words, an offer is an invitation to enter into a contract with certain terms.

According to the Section 2 (a) of Indian Contract Act, “An offer is defined as, when one person signifies to another about his willingness to do or to abstain from doing anything with a view to obtaining the assent of that other to such act or business, he is said to make a proposal”.


  • Offeror/propose is a party making an offer to others.

  • Offeree/propose is a party to whom an offer has been made.

Types of OFFER

The types of offer are discussed below −

  • Express offer − An offer done through words (either oral or written).

  • Implied offer − An offer conveyed through signs/acting.

  • General offer − An offer made to the public.

  • Specific offer − An offer made to a particular/specified person or group.

  • Cross offer − Both parties make similar offers to each other without knowing.

  • Counter offer − An offer made subject to modifications of an original offer.

  • Standing offer − An offer is continuous.

Rules of OFFER

The rules of offer are explained below −

  • Legal relationship is created between the parties.

  • Terms and conditions of an offer must be clear and certain.

  • Declaration of intention should be given.

  • Communication between parties should be clear.

  • Offeror should not pressurize the Offeree.