What is Quality Assurance (QA)? (Process, Methods, Examples)

Let’s start by understanding what do we mean by quality and assurance before moving forward.

  • Quality − Quality is difficult to describe, however it may be summarized as "suitable for use or purpose." It is all about satisfying the demands and requirements of consumers in terms of product performance, design, dependability, longevity, and pricing.

  • Assurance − Assurance is simply a positive remark about a product or service that instills trust. It is the assurance that a product or service will operate properly. It ensures that the product will function properly and in accordance with the expectations or needs.

Quality Assurance in Software Testing

Quality Assurance in Software Testing is described as a method used to assure the quality of software products or services offered by a company to its consumers. Quality assurance is concerned with enhancing the software development process and making it more efficient and productive in accordance with the quality standards established for software products. Quality assurance testing is also known as QA testing.

You will learn the following in this tutorial −

How to do Quality Assurance?

The PDCA cycle, often known as the Deming cycle, is a specified cycle in quality assurance technique. This cycle's stages are as follows −

  • Plan
  • Do
  • Check
  • Act

These procedures are done on a regular basis to guarantee that the organization's processes are assessed and upgraded. Let's take a closer look at the QA Process stages listed above −

  • Plan − The organization should plan and define process-related targets, as well as identify the procedures necessary to achieve a high-quality final result.

  • Do − Process development and testing, as well as "do" adjustments to the procedures

  • Check − Process monitoring, process modification, and assessment of whether the processes achieve the set objectives.

  • Act − A Quality Assurance tester should carry out the activities required to enhance the procedures.

To guarantee that the product is created and deployed correctly, a company must employ Quality Assurance. This aids in the reduction of issues and mistakes in the final output.

What is Quality Control?

Quality control is sometimes shortened as QC. It is a technique used in Software Engineering to assure the quality of a product or service. It is not concerned with the procedures used to make a product, but instead with the performance of the "end products" and the ultimate result.

The primary goal of quality control is to ensure that the products fulfill the customer's requirements and expectations. If a problem is discovered, it must be resolved before the product is delivered to the client.

QC also assesses people's quality level skill sets and provides training and certifications. This evaluation is essential for service-based organizations and aids in providing "perfect" service to customers.

Difference between Quality Control and Quality Assurance

QC is often mistaken with QA. The process of examining a service or product and determining the outcome is known as quality control. Quality assurance in software engineering is the process of examining and changing the procedures that resulted in the end product.

The following are some examples of QC and QA activities −

Quality Control ActivitiesQuality Assurance Activities
WalkthroughAudit of Quality
TestingProcess Definition
InspectionRecognition and selection of tools
Checkpoint reviewQuality Standard and Process Training

The actions listed above are related to Quality Assurance and Control procedures for any product, not only software. In terms of software −

  • SQA replaces QA (Software Quality Assurance)

  • QC evolves into Software Testing.

Differences between SQA and Software Testing

The chart below compares and contrasts SQA with Software Testing −

SQASoftware Testing
Software Quality Assurance refers to the engineering procedure that assures the quality of software.
Before a product goes online, it is subjected to software testing to ensure that it is free of flaws.
Activities associated with the implementation of processes, methods, and regulations are included. An Audit Training is one example.
Involves activities pertaining to product verification, such as Review Testing.
Preventive measure
Corrective action
Prevention strategies
Reactionary measure
The scope of SQA was applied to all products that the organization would develop.
The scope of Software Testing is specific to the product being tested.

Best practices for Quality Assurance

  • Make a Stable Testing Environment

  • Choose your release criteria with consideration.

  • To save money, use automated testing in high-risk areas. It contributes to the overall speed of the procedure.

  • Appropriate time should be allotted to each procedure.

  • It is critical to prioritize issue fixes according to program use.

  • Create separate security and performance testing, team.

  • Simulate client accounts in a manner comparable to that of a production setting.

Quality Assurance Functions

The following are the five major Quality Assurance Functions −

  • Technology transfer − Technology transfer entails obtaining a product design document as well as trial and error data and evaluating it. The materials have been delivered, reviewed, and approved.

  • Validation − A master validation strategy for the entire system is created here. The test criteria for verifying the product and procedure have been approved. The resource planning for the implementation of a validation plan is completed.

  • Documentation − This role is in charge of document dissemination and preservation. Any modification to a document is done in accordance with the appropriate change control method. Document approval for all kinds.

  • Guaranteeing Product Quality

  • Strategies for improving quality

Quality Assurance Certifications

There are numerous industry certifications available to guarantee that organizations adhere to quality standards and processes. Customers use this as a qualification criterion when choosing a software vendor.

ISO 9000

This standard, which is linked to Quality Management Systems, was originally developed in 1987. This enables the business to provide quality to its consumers and other stakeholders. An organization seeking ISO 9000 certification is audited based on its functions, goods, services, and procedures. The primary goal is to examine and verify that the organization is following the process as planned and to determine whether existing procedures need to be improved.

This certification is beneficial as it −

  • Enhances the organization's earnings.
  • Enhances both domestic and international business
  • Eliminates waste while increasing work efficiency
  • Gives excellent client service.

CMMI level

The Capability Maturity Model Integrated (CMMI) is a process improvement strategy designed specifically for improving software processes. It is based on the process maturity framework and is used as a general help in software industry business processes. In Software Development Organizations, this paradigm is highly respected and frequently utilized.

CMMI is divided into five levels. The maturation of an organization's Quality Assurance Mechanisms determines its CMMI level, which ranges from 1 to 5.

  • Level 1 – Initial − The quality environment is fragile at this phase. Simply stated, no protocols are implemented or recorded.

  • Level 2 - Repetitive − Some processes are followed that may be repeated. This level is responsible for ensuring that processes are followed at the project level.

  • Level 3 – Defined − At the organizational level, a set of processes is defined and recorded. Those stated procedures can be improved to some extent.

  • Level 4 – Managed − Process metrics are used to effectively control the procedures that are followed at this level.

  • Level 5 - Optimizing − This level is based on ongoing process improvement via research and improvement.

Test Maturity Model (TMM)

This model is used to measure the maturation of processes in a Testing Environment. This paradigm, too, has five tiers, as defined below −

  • Level 1 – Initial − There are no quality standards for testing procedures at this stage, and only ad hoc procedures are utilized.

  • Level 2 – Definition − A procedure that has been defined. Preparation of test strategy, plans, and test cases is completed.

  • Level 3 – Integration − Testing is performed throughout the software development lifecycle (SDLC) – which is nothing more than integration with development activities, such as the V-Model.

  • Level 4 - Management and Metrics − At this stage, requirements, and designs are reviewed, and criteria for each level of testing are established.


The purpose of quality assurance is to determine if the product created is fit for usage. For that, the organization should have standards and procedures in place, which should be upgraded on a regular basis. It focuses mostly on the quality of product/service that we provide to clients during or after software deployment.