Let us first understand the nature of financial management and then study about its scope.
The nature of financial management includes the following −
Financial management helps in anticipation of funds by estimating working capital and fixed capital requirements for carrying business activities.
Proper balance between debt and equity should be attained, which minimizes the cost of capital.
Financial management decides proper portion of different securities (common equity, preferred equity and debt).
Source of fund is one crucial decision in every organisation. Every organisation should properly analyse various source of funds (shares, bonds, debentures etc.) and must select appropriate funds which involves minimal risk.
Before investing the amount, the investment proposal should be analysed and properly evaluates its risk and returns.
It aims to increase the amount of return to its shareholders by decreasing its cost of operations and increase in profits.
Finance manager should focus on raising the funds from different sources and invest them in profitable avenues.
Finance manager observes all cash movements (inflow and outflow) and ensures they should face any deficiency or surplus of cash.
Implying financial controls helps in keeping the company actual cost of operation within limits and earning the expected profits.
There different approaches involved like developing certain standards for business in advance, comparing the actual cost or performances with pre-established standards and taking all require remedial measures.
Financial management covers wide area with multidimensional approaches. It plays an important role in overall management by dealing with various functional departments like personnel, marketing and production.
The scope of financial management is explained below −
Financial economics is one of the emerging area, which provides immense opportunities to finance and economical areas.
Using macro and micro economics concepts for financial management approach.
Financial managers use investment decisions, micro and macro environmental factors, money value discount factor, economic order quantity etc.
In olden days, both financial management and accounting treated as same and merged, but now-adays, both are separated and interrelated.
Latest approach of the financial management applied large number of mathematical and statistical tools and techniques called econometrics.
Production performances need finance, because the expenses of production (raw material, machinery wages, operating expenses etc.) are carried out by finance department and appropriate funds are allotted to each stage of production.
The finance manager or department is responsible to allocate the adequate funds to marketing department by which goods will be sold by innovative and modern approaches.
Financial manager should carefully evaluate the requirement of manpower in respective departments and allocates finance to human resource department in the form of wages, salary, bonus and other monetary benefits.