What are the different Welding Positions?

What is a Welding Position?

The technique which allows a welder to join the metals in the position in which they are found or the position in which a specific component will be used, is called the welding position.

According to the American Welding Society, there are following four welding positions in which arc welding is done −

  • Flat Position

  • Horizontal Position

  • Vertical Position

  • Overhead Position

Flat Position

The flat position is also referred to as down-hand position. In the flat position, the metals to be welded are placed flat and the welder passes the electric arc over them.

The important points about the flat position of welding are as follows −

  • The flat position is the easiest, most economical and most used for all shielded arc welding.

  • The flat position provides the strongest weld joints.

  • The weld beads are very smooth and free from slag spots.

  • The flat position is most applicable for welding of both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, especially for cast iron.

Horizontal Position

The horizontal position is the second most popular welding position. This position is considered an out of position weld. The horizontal position is more challenging and require a higher level of skill.

The important points about the horizontal position are as −

  • The weld axis is horizontal.

  • The horizontal position also requires a short arc length since it helps in preventing the molten puddle of the metal from sagging.

  • The major errors occur in the welding in horizontal position are, under-cutting and overlapping of weld zone.

Vertical Position

In the vertical position of welding, both the weld and the plat will lie vertically. In the vertical position, the welder deposits the bead wither in downhill or uphill direction.

The points about the vertical position of welding are −

  • The uphill welding is suitable for thick metals as it produces stronger welds.

  • The downhill welding is most commonly used for thin metals since it is faster than uphill welding.

  • The major problem associated with the vertical position is that the molten metal flowing downward and piling up.

Overhead Position

The overhead position of welding is the most difficult position to work in. In this position, the welding is performed with the two pieces of metal above the welder and the welder needs to angle himself and the equipment to reach the joints.

The important points about the overhead position of the welding are as −

  • In the overhead position, the welder has to be very the cautions otherwise he may get burnt by the drops of falling metal.

  • The overhead position weld is the most dangerous one.

  • The major issue in the overhead position weld is the metal sagging from the plat. When the metal sags, it creates a crown. This issue can be avoided by keeping small the puddle of molten metal.