What are the critiques of OSI Model and Protocols?

Let us see the detailed analysis and assessment of OSI and TCP/IP protocols.


It is a suite of communication protocols which is used to interconnect network devices on the internet. The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is also used as a communication protocol in a private network.

The entire internet protocol suite is a set of rules and procedures by providing end-to-end communications which identify how it should be broken into packets addressed, transmitted, routed and received at the destination.

It is defined to make networks reliable, with the ability to recover automatically from the failure of any device on the network.

History of TCP/IP

The defence advanced research projects agency, the research branch of the U.S department of defence, created the TCP/IP model in the 1970’s.

TCP/IP is designed for the UNIX operating system, and it has been built into all operating systems that came after it. TCP/IP models are now maintained by an internet engineering task force.

Working of TCP/IP

TCP/IP uses the client or server model of communication in which a user or machine is provided a service like sending a web page by another computer in the network.

TCP/IP is a protocol dependent model. Now, let us discuss the OSI model.

OSI Model

The open system interconnection (OSI) is a standard reference model created by the international organization for standardization to describe how the different software and hardware components involved in a network communication should divide labour and interact with one another.

The OSI model is a communication gateway between the network and end users.

OSI is developed on a seven layer model. The seven layers include physical layer, data link, network, transport, session, presentation, and last but not least, application layer. It is also known as strict protocol and boundaries.

OSI is a protocol independent standard and the OSI model was created in 1980’s.


The major differences between OSI model and TCP/IP model are as follows

OSI is a generic, protocol independent standard.TCP/IP model is based on standard protocols around which the Internet has developed
In the OSI model the transport layer guarantees the delivery of packets.Here the transport layer does not guarantee for delivery of packets
OSI follows the vertical approach.TCP/IP follows the horizontal approach.
OSI model which has a separate Presentation layer and Session layer.TCP/IP does not have a separate Presentation layer or Session layer.
OSI is a reference model around which the networks are built.The TCP/IP model is, in a way, an implementation of the OSI model.

Layers Differentiation

Layers differentiated between OSI and TCP/IP Model are as follows −

OSI ModelTCP/IP Model
Network interface.

Usage of OSI Model

The question may arise as to why we still use the OSI model even though the entire world uses TCP/IP. This is to help the network administrators by dividing the large data exchange process in smaller segments.

Smaller segments are easier to understand, manage and troubleshoot. With a layer approach they only have to troubleshoot the devices which are working in faulty layers.

Standardization of network components allows multiple-vendor development. It allows different types of network hardware and software to communicate. The division of networks in layers makes network administrators work easier.

It can troubleshoot issues more quickly and effectively by looking in the layer which causes the issue rather than finding the entire network, it also makes learning easier.

Updated on: 17-Mar-2022


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