What are the basic terms used in cryptography in information security?

Cryptography is an automated mathematical tool that plays an important role in network security. It supports the confidentiality and integrity of information and provide authentication and non-repudiation to the users.

Cryptography is frequently used in distributed applications to transfer recognition and authentication information from one system to another over a network. Cryptographic authentication systems validate a user based on the awareness or control of a cryptographic key. Cryptographic authentication systems can be based on private key cryptosystems or public key cryptosystems.

Cryptographic approach can encrypt the biometric templates or images which are saved in a database. It can enhance the level of system security as an intruder should gain access to the encryption keys first.

There are some privacy issues linked with an extensive database remain, because the keys and, thus, the biometric information, are controlled by a custodian.

There are some basic terms used in cryptography are as follows −

Plain Text − The original message that the person wants to connect with the other is represented as Plain Text. In cryptography the actual message that has to be send to the other end is provided as a specific name as Plain Text.

Cipher Text − The message that cannot be learned by anyone or meaningless message is what it can call as Cipher Text. In Cryptography the original message is changed into non-readable message before the communication of actual message.

Encryption − A process of transforming Plain Text into Cipher Text is known as Encryption. Cryptography need the encryption approach to send confidential messages through an insecure channel.

The phase of encryption requires two things such as encryption algorithm and a key. An encryption algorithm define the approach that has been used in encryption. Encryption creates place at the sender side.

Decryption − A reverse process of encryption is known as Decryption. It is a procedure of transforming Cipher Text into Plain Text. Cryptography needs the decryption approach at the receiver side to acquire the original message from non-readable message (Cipher Text).

The phase of decryption requires two things such as Decryption algorithm and a key. A Decryption algorithm define the technique that has been used in Decryption. Generally the encryption and decryption algorithm are equal.

Key − A Key is a numeric or alpha numeric text or can be a unique symbol. The Key can be used at the time of encryption takes place on the Plain Text and at the time of decryption create place on the Cipher Text.

The selection of key in Cryptography is essential because the security of encryption algorithm depends precisely on it.

Hashing − Hash algorithms are frequently used to support a digital fingerprint of a file’s contents used to support that the file has not been converted by an intruder or virus. Hash functions are also generally employed by some operating framework to encrypt passwords. Hash functions supports a measure of the integrity of a record.