What are the Algorithm of Cryptographic in information security?

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There are several algorithms of cryptographic which are as follows −

  • Symmetric key Cryptography − In symmetric key cryptography, an individual key is used for both encryption and decryption. The sender needs the key (or some group of rules) to encrypt the plaintext and sends the cipher text to the receiver. The receiver uses the same key (or ruleset) to decrypt the message and restore the plaintext. Because a single key can be used for both functions, symmetric key cryptography is also known as symmetric encryption.

    Symmetric key cryptography schemes are frequently categorized such as stream ciphers or block ciphers. Stream ciphers operate on an individual bit (byte or computer word) at a time and implement some form of feedback structure so that the key is frequently developing.

  • Public Key Cryptography − Public-key cryptography is also known as asymmetric cryptography, is a form of cryptography in which a user has a pair of cryptographic keys such as public key and a private key.

    The issue for public-key cryptography is proving that a public key is authentic, and has not been tampered with or restored by a malicious third party. The main approach to this problem is to use a Public-key Infrastructure (PKI), in which one or more third parties, called a certificate authorities, certify ownership of key pairs. Another approach, used by PGP, is the “web of trust” method to provide authenticity of key pairs.

  • Hashing − Hash algorithms are generally used to provide a digital fingerprint of a file’s contents used to provide that the file has not been changed by an intruder or virus. Hash functions are also frequently employed by some operating systems to encrypt passwords. Hash functions supports a measure of the integrity of a file.

  • Pretty Good Privacy − PGP can be used to sign or encrypt e-mail messages with the mere click of the mouse. It can be based upon the version of PGP, the software needs SHA or MD5 for calculating the message hash such as CAST, Triple-DES, or IDEA for encryption and RSA or DSS/Diffie-Hellman for key exchange and digital signatures.

    When PGP is first installed, the user has to make a key-pair. One key, the public key, can be advertised and broadly circulated. The private key is secured by use of a passphrase. The passphrase has to be entered each time the user accesses their private key.

  • Kerberos − Kerberos is a commonly used authentication design on the Internet. Kerberos apply a client/server structure and supports user-to-server authentication instead of host-to-host authentication. In this structure, security and authentication will be based on secret key technology where each host on the network has its own secret key.

Updated on 04-Mar-2022 11:04:31