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What are Some of the Technologies Behind IoT Products?
As you know by the term, the Internet of Things (IoT) starts with connectivity. But in reality, there isn't a single, broadly efficient communication mechanism because IoT is a massively diversified and complex field. We will take a look at some of the commonly used technologies that are used in IoT products. This article also discusses the mesh and star topologies in the right way. Here, each solution has different strengths and weaknesses. These are considered in terms of various network requirements, making them more suitable for particular IoT use cases. Therefore, check out the list given below!
List of Some Technologies Used in IoT Products
Low Power Wide Area Networks or LPWANs
LPWANs is a recent development that came into use for people. These are being experienced via the Internet of Things (IoT). This family of technologies offers long-range communication on small, inexpensive batteries that last for years. These are designed to handle vast IoT networks spanning enormous industrial and commercial campuses. Many applications, including asset tracking, environmental monitoring, building management, occupancy detection, and consumables monitoring, are made possible by the ability of all IoT sensor types to be connected via LPWANs. However, because they can only move small amounts of data slowly, LPWANs are better suited for use cases that do not require a lot of bandwidth or are not time-sensitive.
Cellular Networks, Including 3G, 4G, And 5G
Do you know that reliable broadband connectivity is provided through cellular networks? This is because they are well-established in the mobile consumer market. They can also handle a range of phone calls and video streaming apps. Their extraordinarily high power and operating expenses are a disadvantage. Cellular networks may not be practicable for most battery-powered sensor network IoT applications. But they are suitable for particular use cases, such as fleet management in logistics and transportation or linked autos. For example, the ubiquitous and high bandwidth cellular connectivity can support advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), traffic routing, fleet monitoring and tracking services, and in-car entertainment.
Zigbee Or Some Other Mesh Protocols
Zigbee is an IEEE 802.15.4 short-range, low-power wireless protocol. It is commonly used in mesh topologies to extend coverage. It disseminates sensor data among several sensor nodes. Zigbee utilizes much less power than LPWAN while providing greater data rates. This is due to its mesh topology. Due to their short physical range, Zigbee and similar mesh protocols (such as Z-Wave, Thread, etc.) work best for medium-range Internet of Things applications with an even distribution of nodes nearby (100m). Zigbee is often a natural partner to Wi-Fi for many home automation use cases. They rely on home sensor networks, such as smart lighting, HVAC controls, security, energy control, and many more.
Bluetooth and Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)
The consumer market is well-positioned for Bluetooth. It is a short-range communication method that falls under the umbrella of Wireless Personal Area Networks. The original intent of Bluetooth Classic was to enable point-to-point or point-to-multipoint data exchange (up to seven slave nodes) between consumer electronics devices. Later, Bluetooth Low-Energy was developed, and power utilization was optimized to suit small-scale Consumer IoT applications. BLE-enabled devices are frequently used in conjunction with electronic devices, most frequently smartphones, to transmit data to the cloud. These days, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is widely incorporated into Smart Home gadgets, such as door locks, to enable data to be readily communicated to and from wearable health and fitness devices like smartwatches, glucose meters, heart monitors, etc.
It is essential to discuss Wi-Fi, considering its function in providing high-throughput data transfer for domestic and professional settings. The technology has major limitations regarding coverage, scalability, and power consumption. This makes it far less widespread in the IoT space. Due to its high energy consumption, Wi-Fi is frequently not viable for large networks of battery-operated IoT sensors. This is especially in industrial IoT and smart building scenarios. Instead, it emphasizes connecting devices that can simply be plugged into a power outlet, such as smart home appliances, digital billboards, and security cameras. To boost data throughput per user in congested locations, the most recent Wi-Fi generation, Wi-Fi 6, dramatically increases network capacity (i.e., 9.6 Gbps).
Radio Frequency Identification or RFID
Small data packets can be transferred from an RFID tag to a reader using radio waves in radio frequency identification (RFID). Retail and logistics have seen a considerable transition thanks to technology up until this point. RFID tags can be added to a range of goods and machinery, allowing businesses to track their inventory and assets in real time. Better supply chain management and stock and production planning are made possible. With support for brand-new IoT applications like smart shelves, self-checkout, and smart mirrors, RFID is still strongly established in the retail sector. In addition, IoT is becoming more and more accepted.
Simply said, each IoT sector and application has a unique set of network requirements. When choosing the best wireless solution for your IoT use case, you must consider factors like range, bandwidth, Quality of services (QoS), security, battery consumption, and network administration.
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