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What are differences and Similarities between the Indian Council Act [1861,1892,1909]?
The British government passed the Indian Council Acts in 1861, 1892, and 1909, which were significant pieces of legislation for the administration of British India. These actions had a big impact on the political landscape of India and how the British government interacted with the Indian population.
In this article we will tell you about What are differences and Similarities between the Indian Council Act [1861,1892,1909]? These laws all had different clauses and goals, but they also had some things in common.
What Was the Indian Councils Act 1861?
The Indian Councils Act 1861 was an Act of the British Parliament that changed the executive council of India into a cabinet that utilized the portfolio system. The British government wanted to involve the Indian people in the drafting of laws, so it was introduced. On August 1st, 1861, this Act was passed.
Main Provisions of the Act:
- By involving Indians in the legislative process, it created the first representative institutions. Viceroy nominated some Indians to be non-official members of his expanded council.
- Raja of Benaras, the maharaja of Patiala, and Sir Dinkar Rao were nominated by Lord Canning.
- Bombay and Madras' legislative authority has been restored.
- New legislative councils being established for Punjab, North Western Frontier Province, and Bengal
- Viceroy could establish procedures for easy council business transactions.
- It acknowledged Lord Canning's "portfolio system."
Drawbacks of the Act:
- The Act's biggest flaw involved the choice and function of the Additional Members.
- These participants were only advisory and did not participate in the discussions.
- The Indian members were not allowed to vote against any bills, and most bills were passed in a single session without debate.
What Was Indian Councils Act 1892?
The British Parliament passed the Indian Councils Act 1892, which made a number of changes to the make-up and duties of legislative councils in British India. The number of members in the central and provincial councils was increased most significantly by the act.
Main Provisions of the Act:
- Members were no longer prohibited from voting on the budget or posing follow-up questions, but they could now discuss it.
- The Secretary of State for India must give his or her consent before the Governor-General in Council can establish any member nomination guidelines.
- made a stipulation for the indirect and limited use of elections to fill non-official positions in central and provincial councils.
- Nomination for non-official members of the central legislative council (based on recommendations from district boards, municipalities, universities, trade associations, zamindars, and chambers), as well as governors for the provincial legislative council
Drawbacks of The Act
- The annual budget was not subject to Indian control.
- It prohibited the INC from having discussions about financial issues.
- People were not allowed to ask any more questions.
What Was the Indian Councils Act of 1909?
The Indian Councils Act of 1909 was also known as the Morley-Minto reforms, after the Secretary of State for Indian Affairs, Lord John Morley, and the Viceroy, Lord Minto.
It first used the election method in an effort to broaden the authority of legislative councils, satisfy the demands of the Indian National Congress's moderates, and increase Indian participation in governance.
Main Provisions of the Act
- The Central and Provincial Legislative Councils increased considerably in size. The Central Legislative Council now has 60 members instead of its previous 16 members.
- It allowed the provincial legislative councils to have a non-official majority while retaining official majority in the Central Legislative Council.
- The elected representatives were to be chosen by proxy. The central legislature's members would be chosen by the local bodies after an electoral college selected members of the provincial legislatures.
Drawbacks of This Act
- The gap between Muslims and Hindus was widened by the establishment of separate seats.
- An openly communist era in Indian politics began under this regime.
- Even though the Provincial Councils had an unofficial majority, the election of nominated members overruled the unofficial majority, making the outcome irrelevant.
|The ICA,1861||The ICA,1892||The ICA,1909|
|Definition||It changed the executive council of India into a cabinet that utilized the portfolio system.||The number of members in the central and provincial councils was increased most significantly by the act.||It allowed the provincial legislative councils to have a non-official majority while retaining official majority in the Central Legislative Council.|
|Drawback||The Act's biggest flaw involved the choice and function of the Additional Members.||The annual budget was not subject to Indian control.||The gap between Muslims and Hindus was widened by the establishment of separate seats.|
Similarities Between the Indian Council Act [1861,1892,1909]
- The British government introduced all three of these acts to alter the way India was run.
- The laws expanded the pool of Indians who were eligible to take part in politics and government.
- Additionally, they increased the legislative councils' authority in India by giving them more power to discuss and debate laws.
- The deeds aided in the development of an elite group of Indian politicians and leaders who would later advocate for increased independence from British rule.
Q1. What is the difference between Indian Council Act 1861 and 1892?
Ans: The Indian Council Act of 1861 established the government's portfolio system, under which five members were assigned to various departments, and the Indian Council Act of 1892 granted members the authority to inquire about finances and the budget.
Q2. What was the Indian Council Act 1892?
Ans: The Indian Councils Act 1892, passed by the British Parliament, increased the number of legislative councils in India. The members also had access to ask questions about the budget. It signalled the beginning of India's move towards a representative system of government.
Q3. What was the main objective of the Indian Council Act 1861?
Ans: Lord Canning proposed the 1861 Indian Councils Act. The primary goal of this Act was to establish an institutionalized council that includes Indians. The British intended to enlist Indian support through this Act.
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