Types Of Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)

STP is one type of network in the computer science field. It is 2 network layer protocol that is used to obstruct problems that appear while computers contest to use shared telecommunications paths through a local area network. A similar segment is ascenders for another segment and affords accordingly, network segmentation helps in decreasing the competition for other networks and also decreases the chances of a network coming to the network platform.

It’s very easy to use and it’s also effective in providing support for bridges and switches. It helps in providing a link and reducing redundancy and preventing the looping of various backups. It may not handle the decreased input output demand and thus restricts the business in its activities.

Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)

When more computers are trying to transmit data at the same span, it helps in overall network efficiency and also brings all the traffic to the near platform. STP solves the problem using the bridge looping condition. This condition is nothing but when there exist more connections between messages and end points there is a flood of the network at a place. To reduce this the likelihood of looping and dividing a LAN into different networks and segments is being done which is further called a bridge connecting.

Types Of Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)

Some of the ways the digital signatures are attacked are given below,

  • IEEE 802.1D

  • Cisco Proprietary - PVST+

  • IEEE 802.1w - RSTP

  • Cisco Proprietary - RPVST+

1. IEEE 802.1D

It is also defined as Common Spanning Tree. This type of STP was developed by standard IEEE which selects only one Root Bridge. It builds a loop-free logical topology for the local area network. It is very slow and it takes 32 seconds to converge. 802.1D is used for the blocking state, listening state, learning state, disabled state, and forwarding state.

To prevent loops, it eliminates redundant links between any two network devices and only leaves one active link between them. To maintain network connectivity in the event of an active link failure, STP swiftly chooses a suitable redundant link and puts it in the forwarding state.


  • It needs less memory for storage and captain Maximum Utilization of the CPU.


  • It does not focus on balancing the load on the network.

  • Slow convergence

2. Cisco Proprietary - PVST+

Rapid SPT is started and launched by IEEE. It helps in giving support to the standard IEEE 802.1Q trunking. Furthermore useful is the provision of a unique 802.1d SPT for every VLAN network setup. This further helps in separating the support and helps in uplink fast, root guard, loop guard, backbone fast, and BPDU guard.


  • PVST+ helps in the optimum balancing of the load.

  • In comparison to the conventional spanning tree, it uses less bandwidth.


  • This protocol requires more resources such as memory and CPU.

  • The Speed taken to combine two or more things is very low.

3. IEEE 802.1w - RSTP

It is also developed by IEEE standard, which gives brisk confluence. It uses learning, discarding, and encouraging countries.

It is primarily composed of two designation ports −

  • The alternate port delivers the assistance in the backup for the root port.

  • The Backup port is referred to when a segment's designated port delivers assistance in providing a backup.


  • In this SPT, all the bridges send BPDUs (Bridge Protocol Data Units) automatically.

  • High speed.

4. Cisco Proprietary - RPVST+

Rapid Per VLAN Spanning Tree+ is an enhancement over RSPT developed by Cisco, which gives speed convergence compared to PVST+. It gives an individual instance of 802.1w per VLAN. The separate instance supports the Bridge Protocol data unit guard, Post-Fast, BPDU filter, loop guard, and root guard.


  • The Speed taken to combine two or more things is very high.


  • It also needs more resources like memory and CPU.


In the Open System Interconnection model, STP comes under the data link. The original standards by IEEE and the RSTP are the two variants of the STP protocol that are mutually compatible. RSTP offers an ideal communication channel to the host network while also being transparent to the host users. It uses the Spanning algorithm to form a network topology.

Updated on: 12-Apr-2023


Kickstart Your Career

Get certified by completing the course

Get Started