Types of Organic Reactions


Various types of organic reactions are used in synthesising different organic compounds termed as organic reaction. These chemical reactions help to derive various important organic products which are further helpful in different pharmaceutical and industrial productions. These reactions are carried out by various processes like, addition, substitution, and some other reactions.

Chemical Reactions: Definition

Chemical reactions are simply associated with the mixing of two different chemical compounds that helps in deriving a final product. The substances involved in the reactions are called reactants and the resulting material is called the product. Chemical reactions are utilised in every course of human life.

In the course chemistry, a chemical reaction takes place when the bonds of the reactant molecules are disintegrated and new bonds are created formed for the molecule of the product.

Types of Chemical Reaction

The chemical reactions are subcategorised into two different sections based on the selection of reactant products; these reactions are termed organic reactions and inorganic reactions. Both of these types are mentioned briefly −

Organic Reactions

The reactions where products are organic in nature is known as organic reactions. In this course of reactions, one of the reactants gives away an electron pair to the other product where vacant valence shell is available. This creates a bond between the two organic compounds.

Inorganic Reactions

These kinds of reactions are widely observed in nature. These are mostly found in nature. These reactions are constricted mostly to the reservoirs because of chemical buffering between two inorganic samples. This kind of reaction is mostly observed in the case of carbonates and silicates.

Meaning of Organic Reactions

Figure 1: Five Types of Organic Reactions

Organic reactions are the chemical reactions involve the usage of organic substances. Organic reactions include different kinds of reactions based on the disintegration of the bonds found in the reactant molecules. Primarily there are four different kinds of organic reactions such as, substitution, addition, elimination, and rearrangement reactions. 80% of the organic reactions are carried out using these reactions path way. The substances involved in this reaction contain carbon atoms.

Types of Organic Reactions

There are various kinds of organic reactions to consider based on the treatment of the reactant substances and the breakage of bonds. It leads to the formation of different compounds are witnessed through various organic chemical processes. These chemical processes are mentioned below −

Figure 2: Addition reaction

No machine-readable author provided. Su-no-G assumed (based on copyright claims)., Electrophilic addition of Br2, marked as public domain, more details on Wikimedia Commons

Addition Reaction

Addition reactions take place when different substances take part in a chemical reaction to create an entirely new substance. In this course, the reactants found in the reaction do not lose any of the atoms. The addition reaction is quite a common procedure where the participant components have unsaturated C-C bonds found in double and triple bonds.

The presence of these double and triple bonds is found in alkene and alkyne. The weak π bond is transformed into two different strong σ bonds. This reaction is prominently observed when ethene and bromine are combined to produce 1,2- Dibromoethane. The resultant substance is colourless.

Figure 3: Substitution reaction

Aykutaydin, SN1 vs SN2, CC BY-SA 3.0

Substitution Reactions

In course of a substitution reaction, an atom or a conglomerate of atoms is substituted by another one or an entirely different cluster of atoms to create a fresh product. This reaction is also acknowledged as a displacement reaction.

Substitution reactions are widely used in different applications of organic chemistry. This kind of reaction is either categorised as nucleophilic or electrophilic in nature. It solely depends on the reagent that takes place in the course of a reaction.

Figure 4: Elimination reaction

Kkukla, E1 Reaction, CC BY-SA 4.0) User:Innerstream, E2 elimination reaction, marked as public domain, more details on Wikimedia Commons

Elimination Reaction

Different reactions are involved in the case of elimination or removal of an atom or a cluster of it. As a result of elimination reaction various bonds are formed and it releases smaller units of molecules as a final product.

$$\mathrm{CH_3CH_2Cl\:\rightarrow\:CH_2=CH_2 + HCl}$$

One of the prime examples of such a reaction is noticed in the conversion of ethyl chloride into ethene. In this course of a reaction, one unit of the molecule is liberated by HCl. It is formed by combining H+ which is derived from the carbon atom found on the left side of Cl- that is obtained from the carbon atom which is found on the right side of the reaction.


Organic reactions involve the combination of organic substances that are further helpful in different sectors. These reactions and its various subtypes are studied in the course of organic chemistry to assess the types and the associated pattern of the reactions.

Addition and substitution are two widely utilised organic reactions that help in deriving crucial end products that are helpful in industrial sectors. All of the components involved in this reaction require the presence of carbon atoms.


Q1. What is Radical Reaction?

Ans. It is also called a radical substitution reaction which occurs by a free radical mechanism. This reaction results in the substitution of one or multiple atoms. It might even include the groups found in substrates liberated by different atoms of groups. This reaction includes three stages of the process and these are initiation, propagation, and termination.

Q2. What are nucleophilic addition reactions?

Ans. Nuclear addition reactions occur when nucleophiles that contain electrophonic double, triple or π bonds create an entirely new carbon centre combined with two units of single or σ bonds. The addition of a carbon hetero atom with nucleophile results in the variation of products.

Q3. What is an organometallic reaction?

Ans. This kind of reaction reflects nucleophilic characters of the carbon atom to bond with a metal. It helps in the development of the R-R compound that comes with a fresh carbon-carbon bond. This kind of reaction is widely noticed in the Ullmann reaction.

Updated on: 17-Apr-2023


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