Traditional TCP

In this article, we will understand the concept of the Traditional TCP. It is a wired network connection for communication. The Open System Interconnection (OSI) model has seven layers that include the functions of communication over any network. The OSI is considered one of the standard models for much network communication. In the Seven layers, TCP comes under the Fourth layer which is called the Transport layer. TCP/IP model was designed before the development of the OSI model. The TCP always comes along with the IP, the so-called TCP/IP. The main function of TCP/IP is transferring the data using the transmission protocol from the source to the destination.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

TCP is abbreviated as Transmission Control Protocol. TCP/IP is developed by Cerf and Kahn. The TCP provides complete services in the transport layer. It carries the data in the form of packets that are broken into smaller units called segments. These Segments have a particular sequence number. Based on the sequence number, TCP collects all the segments and rearranges them into proper data.


Communication networks have evolved more in recent decades. The Packet switching technology has emerged a lot and TCP/IP needs to be transferred from a combination of wired and wireless to complete the wireless design. Earlier, we used copper wires and fiber optic cable for data transmission over long distances that act as a transmission medium.

The wireless network has a high Bit error rate (BER) because the transmission medium is air where there are high chances of unwanted signals. It involves packet loss and random error that has to be reported to the client regarding the problem or any network congestion. There are totally three phases used for congestion. The first phase is the slow start, second phase is Congestion Avoidance and the last phase is Congestion detection.

1. Slow start

In the TCP/IP the packets are transmitted in the form of broken segments from the server and at the receiver section it is turned into proper data and delivered to the client. The Sender sends the packet by setting them to Maximum Segment size (MSS). And MSS increases exponentially after getting the acknowledgment from one host to another.

A slow start will help to increase the transmission speed. Slow is used to find the bandwidth available for the transmission of packets and also maintains the network speed. Based on the network capability, initially, it is unknown, as it slowly increases information wide until the maximum capacity is formed.

The Congestion is set to a maximum based on the data, before receiving an ACK from the receiver. The slow start will determine that the slow start process is activated. After the activation, it sends one TCP ACK or data From Host A to Host B and waits for an ACK. After receiving the ACK, the congestion window is increased to a maximum greater than the threshold value. So the slow start terminates the process when congestion happens.

2. Congestion Avoidance phase

In the network, congestion occurs when there is a traffic overload on the links beyond their actual capacity. Due to this congestion in the network, there will be a loss of packets during the transmission. So the users face various issues during the usage of the network. As the size increases to the maximum in the above phase, it is required to avoid congestion by calculating the window size of the packet.

3. Congestion Detection phase

The Third phase is the Congestion detection phase, after calculating the window size we can avoid congestion. Even though it contains some network congestion, that can be detected by using this algorithm

Application of TCP

TCP is used for the secure transmission of data between two hosts. For Sending and Receiving an Email it uses a Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). Traditionally, it was designed to transfer data over long distances using internet communication in digital systems. The internet follows the TCP protocol.

TCP gives a reliable service, as the sender gets the acknowledgment of the data, they sent to the client for the status of the data transmission. The acknowledgment can be both positive and negative based on the status.

The Data exchange between the client and server is established and it automatically gets disconnected after the data transfer is done, which means that the TCP is a connection-oriented and a full duplex protocol that the data transfer can be done simultaneously between the client and the server.


Traditional TCP has an environment with both wired and wireless transmission, so it deals with variation in the performance in which the packet from the sender is broken into segments and sent through the medium, then the packets are reassembled into proper data at the receiver end of session layer in OSI model.

Updated on: 28-Mar-2023

2K+ Views

Kickstart Your Career

Get certified by completing the course

Get Started