Python Pandas - Basic Functionality


Advertisements


By now, we learnt about the three Pandas DataStructures and how to create them. We will majorly focus on the DataFrame objects because of its importance in the real time data processing and also discuss a few other DataStructures.

Series Basic Functionality

S.No. Attribute or Method Description
1 axes Returns a list of the row axis labels.
2 dtype Returns the dtype of the object.
3 empty Returns True if series is empty.
4 ndim Returns the number of dimensions of the underlying data, by definition 1.
5 size Returns the number of elements in the underlying data.
6 values Returns the Series as ndarray.
7 head() Returns the first n rows.
8 tail() Returns the last n rows.

Let us now create a Series and see all the above tabulated attributes operation.

Example

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np

#Create a series with 100 random numbers
s = pd.Series(np.random.randn(4))
print s

Its output is as follows −

0   0.967853
1  -0.148368
2  -1.395906
3  -1.758394
dtype: float64

axes

Returns the list of the labels of the series.

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np

#Create a series with 100 random numbers
s = pd.Series(np.random.randn(4))
print ("The axes are:")
print s.axes

Its output is as follows −

The axes are:
[RangeIndex(start=0, stop=4, step=1)]

The above result is a compact format of a list of values from 0 to 5, i.e., [0,1,2,3,4].

empty

Returns the Boolean value saying whether the Object is empty or not. True indicates that the object is empty.

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np

#Create a series with 100 random numbers
s = pd.Series(np.random.randn(4))
print ("Is the Object empty?")
print s.empty

Its output is as follows −

Is the Object empty?
False

ndim

Returns the number of dimensions of the object. By definition, a Series is a 1D data structure, so it returns

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np

#Create a series with 4 random numbers
s = pd.Series(np.random.randn(4))
print s

print ("The dimensions of the object:")
print s.ndim

Its output is as follows −

0   0.175898
1   0.166197
2  -0.609712
3  -1.377000
dtype: float64

The dimensions of the object:
1

size

Returns the size(length) of the series.

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np

#Create a series with 4 random numbers
s = pd.Series(np.random.randn(2))
print s
print ("The size of the object:")
print s.size

Its output is as follows −

0   3.078058
1  -1.207803
dtype: float64

The size of the object:
2

values

Returns the actual data in the series as an array.

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np

#Create a series with 4 random numbers
s = pd.Series(np.random.randn(4))
print s

print ("The actual data series is:")
print s.values

Its output is as follows −

0   1.787373
1  -0.605159
2   0.180477
3  -0.140922
dtype: float64

The actual data series is:
[ 1.78737302 -0.60515881 0.18047664 -0.1409218 ]

Head & Tail

To view a small sample of a Series or the DataFrame object, use the head() and the tail() methods.

head() returns the first n rows(observe the index values). The default number of elements to display is five, but you may pass a custom number.

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np

#Create a series with 4 random numbers
s = pd.Series(np.random.randn(4))
print ("The original series is:")
print s

print ("The first two rows of the data series:")
print s.head(2)

Its output is as follows −

The original series is:
0   0.720876
1  -0.765898
2   0.479221
3  -0.139547
dtype: float64

The first two rows of the data series:
0   0.720876
1  -0.765898
dtype: float64

tail() returns the last n rows(observe the index values). The default number of elements to display is five, but you may pass a custom number.

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np

#Create a series with 4 random numbers
s = pd.Series(np.random.randn(4))
print ("The original series is:")
print s

print ("The last two rows of the data series:")
print s.tail(2)

Its output is as follows −

The original series is:
0 -0.655091
1 -0.881407
2 -0.608592
3 -2.341413
dtype: float64

The last two rows of the data series:
2 -0.608592
3 -2.341413
dtype: float64

DataFrame Basic Functionality

Let us now understand what DataFrame Basic Functionality is. The following tables lists down the important attributes or methods that help in DataFrame Basic Functionality.

S.No. Attribute or Method Description
1 T Transposes rows and columns.
2 axes Returns a list with the row axis labels and column axis labels as the only members.
3 dtypes Returns the dtypes in this object.
4 empty True if NDFrame is entirely empty [no items]; if any of the axes are of length 0.
5 ndim Number of axes / array dimensions.
6 shape Returns a tuple representing the dimensionality of the DataFrame.
7 size Number of elements in the NDFrame.
8 values Numpy representation of NDFrame.
9 head() Returns the last n rows.
10 tail() Returns last n rows.

Let us now create a DataFrame and see all how the above mentioned attributes operate.

Example

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np

#Create a Dictionary of series
d = {'Name':pd.Series(['Tom','James','Ricky','Vin','Steve','Smith','Jack']),
   'Age':pd.Series([25,26,25,23,30,29,23]),
   'Rating':pd.Series([4.23,3.24,3.98,2.56,3.20,4.6,3.8])}

#Create a DataFrame
df = pd.DataFrame(d)
print ("Our data series is:")
print df

Its output is as follows −

Our data series is:
    Age   Name    Rating
0   25    Tom     4.23
1   26    James   3.24
2   25    Ricky   3.98
3   23    Vin     2.56
4   30    Steve   3.20
5   29    Smith   4.60
6   23    Jack    3.80

T (Transpose)

Returns the transpose of the DataFrame. The rows and columns will interchange.

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
 
# Create a Dictionary of series
d = {'Name':pd.Series(['Tom','James','Ricky','Vin','Steve','Smith','Jack']),
   'Age':pd.Series([25,26,25,23,30,29,23]),
   'Rating':pd.Series([4.23,3.24,3.98,2.56,3.20,4.6,3.8])}

# Create a DataFrame
df = pd.DataFrame(d)
print ("The transpose of the data series is:")
print df.T

Its output is as follows −

The transpose of the data series is:
         0     1       2      3      4      5       6
Age      25    26      25     23     30     29      23
Name     Tom   James   Ricky  Vin    Steve  Smith   Jack
Rating   4.23  3.24    3.98   2.56   3.2    4.6     3.8

axes

Returns the list of row axis labels and column axis labels.

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np

#Create a Dictionary of series
d = {'Name':pd.Series(['Tom','James','Ricky','Vin','Steve','Smith','Jack']),
   'Age':pd.Series([25,26,25,23,30,29,23]),
   'Rating':pd.Series([4.23,3.24,3.98,2.56,3.20,4.6,3.8])}

#Create a DataFrame
df = pd.DataFrame(d)
print ("Row axis labels and column axis labels are:")
print df.axes

Its output is as follows −

Row axis labels and column axis labels are:

[RangeIndex(start=0, stop=7, step=1), Index([u'Age', u'Name', u'Rating'],
dtype='object')]

dtypes

Returns the data type of each column.

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np

#Create a Dictionary of series
d = {'Name':pd.Series(['Tom','James','Ricky','Vin','Steve','Smith','Jack']),
   'Age':pd.Series([25,26,25,23,30,29,23]),
   'Rating':pd.Series([4.23,3.24,3.98,2.56,3.20,4.6,3.8])}

#Create a DataFrame
df = pd.DataFrame(d)
print ("The data types of each column are:")
print df.dtypes

Its output is as follows −

The data types of each column are:
Age     int64
Name    object
Rating  float64
dtype: object

empty

Returns the Boolean value saying whether the Object is empty or not; True indicates that the object is empty.

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
 
#Create a Dictionary of series
d = {'Name':pd.Series(['Tom','James','Ricky','Vin','Steve','Smith','Jack']),
   'Age':pd.Series([25,26,25,23,30,29,23]),
   'Rating':pd.Series([4.23,3.24,3.98,2.56,3.20,4.6,3.8])}
 
#Create a DataFrame
df = pd.DataFrame(d)
print ("Is the object empty?")
print df.empty

Its output is as follows −

Is the object empty?
False

ndim

Returns the number of dimensions of the object. By definition, DataFrame is a 2D object.

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np

#Create a Dictionary of series
d = {'Name':pd.Series(['Tom','James','Ricky','Vin','Steve','Smith','Jack']),
   'Age':pd.Series([25,26,25,23,30,29,23]),
   'Rating':pd.Series([4.23,3.24,3.98,2.56,3.20,4.6,3.8])}

#Create a DataFrame
df = pd.DataFrame(d)
print ("Our object is:")
print df
print ("The dimension of the object is:")
print df.ndim

Its output is as follows −

Our object is:
      Age    Name     Rating
0     25     Tom      4.23
1     26     James    3.24
2     25     Ricky    3.98
3     23     Vin      2.56
4     30     Steve    3.20
5     29     Smith    4.60
6     23     Jack     3.80

The dimension of the object is:
2

shape

Returns a tuple representing the dimensionality of the DataFrame. Tuple (a,b), where a represents the number of rows and b represents the number of columns.

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
 
#Create a Dictionary of series
d = {'Name':pd.Series(['Tom','James','Ricky','Vin','Steve','Smith','Jack']),
   'Age':pd.Series([25,26,25,23,30,29,23]),
   'Rating':pd.Series([4.23,3.24,3.98,2.56,3.20,4.6,3.8])}
 
#Create a DataFrame
df = pd.DataFrame(d)
print ("Our object is:")
print df
print ("The shape of the object is:")
print df.shape

Its output is as follows −

Our object is:
   Age   Name    Rating
0  25    Tom     4.23
1  26    James   3.24
2  25    Ricky   3.98
3  23    Vin     2.56
4  30    Steve   3.20
5  29    Smith   4.60
6  23    Jack    3.80

The shape of the object is:
(7, 3)

size

Returns the number of elements in the DataFrame.

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
 
#Create a Dictionary of series
d = {'Name':pd.Series(['Tom','James','Ricky','Vin','Steve','Smith','Jack']),
   'Age':pd.Series([25,26,25,23,30,29,23]),
   'Rating':pd.Series([4.23,3.24,3.98,2.56,3.20,4.6,3.8])}
 
#Create a DataFrame
df = pd.DataFrame(d)
print ("Our object is:")
print df
print ("The total number of elements in our object is:")
print df.size

Its output is as follows −

Our object is:
    Age   Name    Rating
0   25    Tom     4.23
1   26    James   3.24
2   25    Ricky   3.98
3   23    Vin     2.56
4   30    Steve   3.20
5   29    Smith   4.60
6   23    Jack    3.80

The total number of elements in our object is:
21

values

Returns the actual data in the DataFrame as an NDarray.

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
 
#Create a Dictionary of series
d = {'Name':pd.Series(['Tom','James','Ricky','Vin','Steve','Smith','Jack']),
   'Age':pd.Series([25,26,25,23,30,29,23]),
   'Rating':pd.Series([4.23,3.24,3.98,2.56,3.20,4.6,3.8])}
 
#Create a DataFrame
df = pd.DataFrame(d)
print ("Our object is:")
print df
print ("The actual data in our data frame is:")
print df.values

Its output is as follows −

Our object is:
    Age   Name    Rating
0   25    Tom     4.23
1   26    James   3.24
2   25    Ricky   3.98
3   23    Vin     2.56
4   30    Steve   3.20
5   29    Smith   4.60
6   23    Jack    3.80
The actual data in our data frame is:
[[25 'Tom' 4.23]
[26 'James' 3.24]
[25 'Ricky' 3.98]
[23 'Vin' 2.56]
[30 'Steve' 3.2]
[29 'Smith' 4.6]
[23 'Jack' 3.8]]

Head & Tail

To view a small sample of a DataFrame object, use the head() and tail() methods. head() returns the first n rows (observe the index values). The default number of elements to display is five, but you may pass a custom number.

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
 
#Create a Dictionary of series
d = {'Name':pd.Series(['Tom','James','Ricky','Vin','Steve','Smith','Jack']),
   'Age':pd.Series([25,26,25,23,30,29,23]),
   'Rating':pd.Series([4.23,3.24,3.98,2.56,3.20,4.6,3.8])}

#Create a DataFrame
df = pd.DataFrame(d)
print ("Our data frame is:")
print df
print ("The first two rows of the data frame is:")
print df.head(2)

Its output is as follows −

Our data frame is:
    Age   Name    Rating
0   25    Tom     4.23
1   26    James   3.24
2   25    Ricky   3.98
3   23    Vin     2.56
4   30    Steve   3.20
5   29    Smith   4.60
6   23    Jack    3.80

The first two rows of the data frame is:
   Age   Name   Rating
0  25    Tom    4.23
1  26    James  3.24

tail() returns the last n rows (observe the index values). The default number of elements to display is five, but you may pass a custom number.

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np

#Create a Dictionary of series
d = {'Name':pd.Series(['Tom','James','Ricky','Vin','Steve','Smith','Jack']),
   'Age':pd.Series([25,26,25,23,30,29,23]), 
   'Rating':pd.Series([4.23,3.24,3.98,2.56,3.20,4.6,3.8])}
 
#Create a DataFrame
df = pd.DataFrame(d)
print ("Our data frame is:")
print df
print ("The last two rows of the data frame is:")
print df.tail(2)

Its output is as follows −

Our data frame is:
    Age   Name    Rating
0   25    Tom     4.23
1   26    James   3.24
2   25    Ricky   3.98
3   23    Vin     2.56
4   30    Steve   3.20
5   29    Smith   4.60
6   23    Jack    3.80

The last two rows of the data frame is:
    Age   Name    Rating
5   29    Smith    4.6
6   23    Jack     3.8


Advertisements