Project Management Life Cycle Phases

Software TestingAutomation TestingTesting Tools

What is a Project Management Life Cycle?

The Project Management Life Cycle is a set of tasks that must be completed in order for a project's goals or targets to be met. It's a structure that outlines the steps involved in turning an idea into a reality. Projects may have various dimensions and degrees of complexity, but they can all be mapped to the Project Management life cycle framework, regardless of their size.

  • What is a Project Management Life Cycle, and how does it work?

  • Phases of the Project Management Life Cycle

  • Phase One: Begin

  • Phase of Preparation

  • Phase of Execution

  • Phases of monitoring, controlling, and closing

Phases of the Project Management Life Cycle

As indicated in the picture below, the Project Management Lifecycle process is separated into four parts: the planning phase, the execution phase, and the monitoring, controlling, and closing phase.

We will examine each phase of the project life cycle −

Stage 1 − Project Initiation

The steps are necessary to begin a new project are defined in the initiation phase. The project start phase's goal is to figure out what the project should achieve.

This phase is mostly made up of two primary activities.

  • Make a project charter and stick to it.

  • Stakeholders should be identified.

In the Project Charter and Stakeholder Register, all project-related information is recorded. The project is formally authorized after the project charter is approved.

Charter of the Project

The project's primary parts are defined in the Project Charter.

  • Aims of the project

  • Problem statements and project restrictions

  • Appoint a project manager.

  • List of stakeholders

  • Schedule and budget at a high level

  • Milestones

  • Approvals

This document permits a project manager to make use of organizational resources for the project's benefit. Enterprise environment factor, business case, agreements, a project description of work, and organizational process assets will be needed to build a project charter.

Stakeholder Identification

A stakeholder may have an impact on the project's success or failure. A Stakeholder Register is used to record information about the stakeholder. The stakeholder registration will include details such as

  • Stakeholder types

  • Stakeholder expectations

  • Project Participation ( Business Analyst, Tech architect, Client PM)

  • Affirmation (Director, Business Lead, etc.)

  • Communication frequency (weekly/monthly)

The following are some of the additional actions involved in starting a process group −

  • Choosing a project manager

  • Identifying the needs, expectations, and high-level requirements of stakeholders

  • Define the success criteria for the project.

  • Determine a specific budget for each step.

  • Ascertain if the project is in line with the organization's strategic objectives

Other development groups, such as the planning process group, utilize the stakeholder registration and project charter as inputs.

Stage 1: Project Planning

The project planning phase accounts for around half of the whole procedure. The scope of the project as well as the project's goal are determined during the planning phase. It starts with the initiation phase's outputs (charter, preliminary scope statement, and project manager). The planning phase's output is used as the input for the execution phase.

The following are crucial parts of the planning process −

  • The planning step should not begin until the basic planning has been completed.

  • You should not stop modifying plans until the implementation phase begins.

Make a structure for work breakdown (WBS)

WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) is critical to any project's success. The steps for creating a WBS are as follows.

  • Make a list of all the tasks in a brainstorming session.

  • Involve your whole staff in the brainstorming process.

  • Make a list of the task's structure tree, often known as the WBS (work breakdown structure)

  • Break down your top WBS even further into a hierarchical collection of activities, such as categories, sub-categories, and so on. Hardware, software, trainees, management teams, and so forth.

  • Define how the items will be entered into your WBS.

  • Inquire of others – a specialist, experienced employees, etc.

  • Granularity − How specific should your job be? Estimating cost and time for greater granularity is difficult, whereas estimating cost and time for lower granularity is hampered by too much detail.

  • The degree of granularity should be just perfect, neither too high or too low.

Management of the Planning Schedule

The process of defining procedures, rules, and documentation for planning, managing, executing, and controlling the project schedule is known as the plan schedule. The following are some of the inputs to these activities −

  • Plan for project management

  • Charter of the Project

  • Environmental considerations in the workplace

  • Assets in organizational processes

The Planning Schedule Management produces the following results −

  • Plan for time management

Identifying Tasks

The technique for documenting and specifying particular actions to be undertaken in order to achieve project deliverables is known as defining activities.

Each work package is divided down into separate work schedule activities in defined activities. The defining activities' inputs include

  • Plan for time management

  • Establish a starting point.

  • Environmental considerations in the workplace

  • Assets in organizational processes

While the activities' outcomes are diverse,

  • a list of activities

  • Characteristics of an activity

  • a list of milestones

Organize your activities.

The result of "define activities" is logically organized by "sequence activities." It establishes the sequence in which the actions must be completed.

"Network Diagram" is the major result of the sequence activity procedure.

Posting the tasks on a board in a logical sequence is what a network diagram is.

If you want to establish a company in a foreign nation, what will be your list of operations, and in what sequence should they be completed?

In this sequence, you will complete the activities.

  • Select a nation.

  • Obtain a business license

  • Employing a manager

  • Purchasing a home

  • Purchasing furnishings, etc.

  • Getting the company up and running

Activity Resource Estimation

This stage discusses how to estimate the amount of time and resources needed to execute a job. The availability of resources is another element that must be addressed at this point.

When assessing resources, concentrate on the plan's longest route (Critical Path), which will take the most time and money.

For two jobs, you must estimate resources.

  • Important responsibilities

  • Floating Tasks

Make sure your key jobs are estimated correctly (completion time).

The estimation of activity resources is based on five inputs.

  • Plan for Time Management

  • a list of activities

  • Calendar of Resources

  • Environmental considerations in the workplace

  • Assets in organizational processes

This stage's outcome is

  • Resource requirements for the activity

  • Structure of resource allocation

  • Updates to project documentation

NOTE: "Develop Schedule" will benefit from all of the previous actions (define activities + sequence activities + estimate activity resources).

Time Estimation for Activities

Activity Estimation The practice of predicting the number of work periods (weeks/months) necessary to accomplish a certain activity using estimated resources is known as duration. This stage establishes how long each job will take to accomplish.

You can't figure out how long an activity will take until you know how much effort and resources it will need to execute it. This is the sequence in which the estimation procedure should be completed.

  • First, determine how much labor will be required.

  • Then comes estimating the resources.

  • Then comes estimating the task's length.

You'll need inputs to estimate activity durations.

  • a list of activities

  • Characteristics of an activity

  • Calendars of resources

  • Statement of the Project's Scope

  • Assets in organizational processes

  • Environmental considerations in the workplace

There are two major outputs.

  • Calculate the length of each activity.

  • Estimate activity durations-updates to project documents

PERT (Project Evaluation and Review Techniques) estimations are another name for this method.

Make a schedule

Develop Schedule is the process of creating a project scheduling model by examining activity sequences, resource needs, durations, and schedule limitations. Three key considerations are taken into account while scheduling each work.

  • Duration

  • Dependencies between tasks

  • Constraints

The project generates the start and end dates for each activity based on these parameters.

To make a schedule, you may utilize scheduling software. It creates a schedule model with estimated completion dates for project tasks.

This tool's input consists −

  • Plan for time management

  • a list of activities

  • Characteristics of an activity

  • Schedule for the project - network diagrams

  • Resource requirements for the activity

  • Calendars of resources

  • Estimates of activity duration

  • Statement of the Project's Scope

  • Register of dangers

  • Assignments of project personnel

  • Structure of resource allocation

  • Environmental considerations in the workplace

  • Assets in organizational processes

This would result in the following −

  • Timeline for the project

  • Diagram of the project's network

  • Bar charts or Gantt charts

  • Chart of milestones

  • Establish a baseline

  • Data that has been scheduled

  • Updates to project documentation

Schedule of Control

Control Schedule is the last step of the planning process. It is the practice of keeping track of project activities in order to keep the project process up to date and manage changes to the timetable baseline.

If modifications to the schedule are necessary, the change control procedure must be followed. The timetable should be monitored or regulated proactively by the management.

The control scheduling procedure has four basic outputs.

  • Plan for project management

  • Establish a baseline

  • Plan for time management

  • Timeline for the project

  • Information about job performance

  • Assets in organizational processes

The control schedule has five outputs.

  • Management of work performance

  • Asset updates for organizational processes

  • Request for a change

  • Updates to the project management plan

  • Updates to project documentation

Stage of Project Execution

The actions described in the project management plan make up the executing phase. This process includes managing stakeholder expectations, collaborating with people and resources, and completing other project deliverables-related tasks.

The outcome may need re-base lining and modifications to current project requirements throughout the execution phase. The project management plan or documentation may be impacted by actions performed during the execution phase.

Execution of Projects is Directed and Managed

As the process that produces project deliverables, this stage consumes the majority of the project's money, time, and resources.

To Direct and Manage Project Execution, there are four inputs.

  • Plan for Project Management

  • Request for a modification has been approved.

  • EEFs (Environmental Effects Funds) (Enterprise Environmental Factors)

  • OPAs are acronyms for "other people's money (Organizational Process Assets)

There are five outputs in all.

  • Deliverables

  • Data on job performance

  • Request for a change

  • Updates to the Project Management Plan

  • Updates to project documentation

Expert’s judgments, meetings, and reporting KPI (Key Performance Indicators) are all critical at this level.

Executing Quality Control

The process of assessing the quality requirements and the outcomes of quality control measures is known as performing quality assurance. It is the process of evaluating performance by documenting and monitoring the outcomes of quality operations. This process may be aided by a variety of techniques such as control charts, cost-benefit analysis, flowcharting, run charts, scatter diagrams, inspection & reviews, and so on.

The major source of information for this is

  • Plan for project management

  • Metrics of quality

  • Measurements for quality assurance

  • Information about job performance

However, the result of this is

  • Request for a change

  • Updates to the project management plan

  • Updates to project documentation

  • Asset updates for organizational processes

Getting a Project Team

The acquisition of project teams occurs during the execution phase since it is more probable that personnel with diverse skill sets would be needed throughout the process.

There are three primary factors to consider while assembling a project team.

  • Responsibilities and roles

  • Diagram of the project's structure

  • Plan for staffing management

There are three outputs in total.

  • Assignments of project personnel

  • Calendars of resources

  • Updates to the project management plan

Build a Project Team

The bulk of human resource procedures are involved in the execution phase, which includes the development of project teams. The primary goal of project team development is to increase team members' overall performance. This stage should begin as soon as possible in the project.

The project development team's inputs include −

  • Plan for human resource management

  • Assignments of project personnel

  • Calendars of resources

This procedure produces the following results −

  • Evaluations of team performance

  • Updates on the EEFs

Organize the project team

One of the most significant aspects of project management is project team management. It is the most challenging aspect of project management since many managers do not have direct contact with team members, making it impossible to assess their performance and determine their compensation.

To manage the project team process, there are five inputs.

  • Assignments of project personnel

  • Evaluations of team performance

  • Reports on performance

  • Plan for project management

  • Assets in organizational processes

The outputs are divided into four categories.

  • Asset updates for organizational processes

  • Updates on environmental variables in the workplace

  • Request for a change

  • Updates to the project management plan

Communicate effectively

One of the three communication characteristics is related to the execution process. There are three key communication characteristics that must be monitored in a communication management program.

  • Members of the project team to the project manager

  • To the program manager, project managers

  • To stakeholders or other sponsors, the program manager

Managing communications necessitates the use of a variety of tools.

  • Plan for communication management

  • Reports on work performance

  • EEFs

  • OPAs

This stage's outcome would be

  • Communications for the project

  • Updates to the project management plan

  • Updates to project documentation

  • Updates on OPAs

Carry out Procurement

There are two key roles engaged at this stage: the buyer and the seller. The actions included in the procurement process are as follows −

  • Send out the bidding packet to interested buyers.

  • Organize bidder meetings.

  • Examine prospective seller offers.

  • Choose the best-selling proposals.

The procurement procedure produces the following results −

  • Plan for project management

  • Documents used in the procurement process

  • Criteria for selecting sources

  • a list of qualified sellers

  • Proposals from the seller

  • Documents for the project

  • Decide whether to build or purchase.

  • a collaboration arrangement (teaming agreement)

  • Assets in organizational processes

You will have six outputs in total.

  • Selective vendors

  • Award of a procurement contract

  • Calendars of resources

  • Requests for changes

  • Updates to the project management plan

Stakeholder Engagement is managed

This stage entails actively managing project stakeholders throughout the duration of the project. Stakeholder expectations are recognized and swiftly handled to minimize unforeseen project delays or abandonment in the middle.

To manage the stakeholder process, there are five inputs.

  • Stakeholder database

  • Management plan for stakeholders

  • Plan for project management

  • a record of issues

  • a history of changes

  • Assets in organizational processes

This procedure produces the following results −

  • Asset updates for organizational processes

  • Request for a change

  • Updates to the project management plan

  • Updates to the project documentation

Review of the Project's Phases

The project phase review is completed at the conclusion of the execution phase. It aids you in documenting the actions that follow.

  • Keep a record of the outcome of your project management review.

  • Keep the sponsor up to date on the project's development.

  • Identifying any potential risks or concerns that may have hampered the project

  • Stakeholder deliverables created throughout the project are shown.

  • Request permission to go on to the next step.

Stages of project monitoring and control, as well as project closure

The monitoring and controlling phase begins after the execution phase to ensure that the project is on track. Various adjustments and evaluations are made during this phase in order to improve the project's performance.

Work on the project is monitored and controlled.

This stage entails keeping track of, evaluating, and controlling progress in order to accomplish the project's goal. It also makes certain that the deliverables follow the project management strategy. This step's major goal is to detect any modifications made after the project management plan was created so that appropriate preventative action may be taken.

This step requires the following inputs −

  • Plan for project management

  • Reports on performance

  • Estimated costs

  • Forecasts on time

  • Changes should be verified.

  • Environmental considerations in the workplace

  • Assets in organizational processes

While the final product comprises

  • Requests for changes

  • Updates to the project management plan

  • Updates to project documentation

Controlling Change Integratedly

It is one of the most crucial projects management processes. The effect of any modification is reviewed against the project at this point. If this stage changes in any component of a project, the whole project will be evaluated. It is preferable to apply modifications early in the project since the cost of making changes rises as the project proceeds.

This stage's input includes −

  • Plan for project management

  • Reports on work performance

  • Requests for changes

  • EEFs

  • OPAs

While the results are,

  • Change requests that have been approved

  • a history of changes

  • Updates to the project management plan

  • Updates to project documentation

Validate the scope of the project

The validating scope entails ensuring that the deliverables fit the customer's requirements. Validating Scope Management includes external checks with customers or stakeholders.

The validating scope requires the following inputs −

  • Plan for project management

  • Requirements

  • Documentation

  • Traceability matrix for requirements

  • Deliverables that have been verified

  • Data on job performance

While the scope validation's output contains −

  • Deliverables that have been accepted

  • Requests for changes

  • Information about job performance

  • Updates to project documentation

Scope of Control

Control scope guarantees that only the work that has been designated as being in scope is completed. The actual outcome is compared to the scope baseline to confirm that the whole scope of work has been completed.

The inputs to the scope control procedure are as follows −

  • Plan for project management

  • Information about job performance

  • Documentation of requirements

  • Traceability matrix for requirements

  • Assets in organizational processes

While the final product comprises

  • Measuring work performance

  • Asset updates for organizational processes

  • Requests for changes

  • Updates to the project management plan

  • Updates to project documentation

Schedule of Control

The Control Schedule procedure aids you in a variety of ways. It assists you in capturing the current schedule status, determining variation from the schedule baseline, comprehending the nature of the variance, and responding appropriately.

If modifications to the schedule are required, they must first go through the change control procedure, be re-evaluated, and then be utilized to update the schedule baseline.

The control schedule has four major inputs.

  • Plan for project management

  • Establish a baseline

  • Plan for time management

  • Timeline for the project

  • Information about job performance

  • Assets in organizational processes

Among the results are −

  • Measuring work performance

  • Asset updates for organizational processes

  • Requests for changes

  • Updates to the project management plan

  • Updates to project documentation

Phase of completion

The closing phase is the process of completing a project's controlled shut down at the conclusion. There are three closing events that take place in a project.

  • If the project is external, getting the client to accept the final deliverables is called product closure.

  • Ending the project officially entails closing administrative operations, updating project papers, and archiving relevant databases and records.

  • Closure of the project's resources- After the project's financial closure, the project's resources should be returned.

The following are some of the inputs for this procedure −

  • Plan for Project Management

  • Deliverables That Have Been Accepted

  • OPAs

This procedure produces the following results

  • The transition from final product, service, or outcome

  • Updates on OPAs

Summary

The steps are necessary to begin a new project are defined in the initiation phase. It specifies what the project should achieve in a reasonable amount of time.

The initiation phase is mostly made up of two activities.

  • Prepare a project charter.

  • Stakeholders should be identified.

The stakeholder registry and project charter may also be used in other project management process groups, such as the planning process.

The scope and goal of the project are determined during the planning phase. It entails generating a set of blueprints that will lead you through the project's execution and completion stages.

The actions described in the project management plan make up the executing phase. It is the most time-consuming and energy-intensive phase of the project life cycle. The project management plan or documentation may be impacted by actions performed during the execution phase.

The following are key tasks in the execution project life cycle phases

  • Plan and execute project management strategies

  • Execution of Projects is Directed and Managed

  • Carry out Task Assignments

  • Organize progress status meetings, and so forth.

The outcome may need re-base lining and modifications to current project requirements throughout the execution phase.

Before the closure phase, the monitoring and controlling stage ensure that the deliverables are in accordance with the project management plan.

The major goal of this phase is to identify any changes made after the project management plan was created, so that preventative action may be taken in the case of an unexpected outcome.

The closing phase is the process of completing a project's controlled shut down at the conclusion.

raja
Published on 02-Dec-2021 05:58:20

Advertisements