Manual Testing Tutorial for Beginners (Concepts, Types, Tool)

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Manual Testing

Manual testing is a sort of software testing wherein test cases are personally run by a tester instead of utilizing automated technologies. The goal of manual testing is to find errors, faults, and flaws in a software product. Manual software testing is by far the most basic of all testing methods, and it aids in the discovery of serious problems in software applications.

Even before new app can be automated, it must first be manually evaluated. Manual software testing takes more time and effort, but this is required to determine if automation is possible. Manual testing principles do not need familiarity with any testing tool. "100% Automation is not achievable," says one of the Software Testing Fundamentals. This requires manual testing.

We address all manual testing principles and subjects in-depth in our Manual Testing lesson for beginners.

Manual Testing's Purpose

  • The main goal of manual testing is to guarantee that the program is error-free and that it meets the defined required functionality.

  • Test suites, also known as cases, are created throughout the testing process and should provide 100% testing coverage.

  • It also ensures that identified faults are corrected by developers and that testers retest the issues that have been resolved.

  • Essentially, rigorous testing ensures that the system is of top standard and that the consumer receives a bug-free product.

Manual Testing Stages

  • Unit Testing - Individual parts or units of source code are verified during testing. The smallest testable portion of any program is known as a unit. It aims at evaluating the functioning of specific application elements. It is frequently used by developers to find issues early in the process.

    A unit testing phase is as simple as clicking a button on a web page and confirming that it executes the expected action. For instance, verifying that a website's share button allows you to share the right page URL.

  • Integrity Checking - After unit testing, integration testing comes next. Several units are combined and tested as a single unit. For instance, verifying compatibility by examining a sequence of websites in a certain sequence.

    This method aids QAs in determining how the application's many components interact to get the intended outcome. Integrative testing that is done concurrently with development assists developers to find and fix errors quicker.

  • System Evaluation - System testing, as the title indicates, entails evaluating all of the software's interconnected components overall. It aids QAs in determining if the system fits the necessary specifications. It contains a variety of tests, such as verifying output based on a particular input, customer experience assessment, and more.

    Based on their energy and budget, teams perform various types of system testing such as regression testing, stress testing, functional testing, and more.

  • Acceptance Testing - Acceptance testing's aim is to determine whether the system as a whole has been ready to be used in the actual world. Internal and external acceptance testing is carried out. Members of the organization do internal acceptance testing (also known as alpha testing). A small number of real end-users do external testing (also known as beta testing). This process helps groups in determining how effectively the product meets the user's expectations. It also detects flaws in the last stages before the software is delivered.

Manual Testing Types

Manual Testing Types are shown in the figure below. In reality, every form of software testing may be done manually or with the help of an automated tool.

  • Testing in a Black Box

  • Testing in a White Box

  • Testing at the unit level

  • System Evaluation

  • Integrity Checking

  • Acceptance Testing

White Box Experiments

White box testing often termed transparent testing or glass box testing, is a method where the QA is acquainted with the application's core code or architecture. Its primary purpose is unit testing. Specific methodologies like as data flow testing, control flow testing, decision coverage, and route testing, among others, are covered by white box testing.

Testing in a black box

Black-box testing is a test technique wherein the QA has no understanding of the application's source code or architecture. To evaluate the software application's functional and non-functional characteristics, the QA communicates with it as if it were an end-user. This aids in the discovery of issues that are often neglected in the early phases.

Testing in a Grey Box

The grey-box testing strategy combines white-box and black-box testing approaches. The major goal of this technique is to find any faults that may be present as a result of improper use or structural defects.

Manual Testing Techniques

  • Read and comprehend the documentation/guides for the software project. Also, if one is available, examine the Application Under Test (AUT).

  • Create test cases that meet all of the documentation's criteria.

  • Along with help of the Team Lead and the Client, evaluate and calibrate the test scenarios (as applicable)

  • Apply the test cases to the AUT.

  • Please report any problems you find.

  • Once the problems have been addressed, re-run the failed test cases to ensure they pass.

Manual Testing Myths

The following are some popular testing misconceptions and facts −

  • Myth − Manual testing may be done by anybody.

  • Fact − Testing necessitates a wide range of abilities.

  • Myth − Manual testing is more effective than automated testing.

  • Fact − 100% test automation is impossible to achieve. The importance of manual software testing cannot be overstated.

  • Myth − Testing is a simple process.

  • Fact − Testing can be exceedingly difficult. Good computational abilities are required while testing an application for probable use cases with few test cases.

Software Build Procedure

  • Once the requirements have been gathered, they will be sent to the development and testing teams.

  • The responsible developer will begin developing the program after receiving the need.

  • Meanwhile, the test engineer deciphers the need and creates the necessary papers; in the interim, the developer may finish the code and save it in the Control Version tool.

  • Following that, the code in the UI changes, and these updates are handled by a different team called as the build team.

  • This building team would take the source code and use a build tool to assemble and compress it. Once we've gotten some results, we put them in a zip file called Build (application or software). Each Build will be assigned a unique number, such as (B001, B002).

  • Then, on the test server, this specific Build will be installed. The test engineer will then use the Test URL to connect to this test server and begin testing the application.

  • If the test engineer discovers an issue, he or she will notify the appropriate developer.

  • The programmer then will duplicate the problem on the test server, repair the fault, and save the code in the Control version tool, which will then install the latest upgraded file and uninstall the old file; this procedure will be repeated until the Build is stable.

  • It will be given over to the client once we have a secure Build.

Manual Testing vs. Automation Testing

  • Manual testing necessitates the use of a person to carry out the test.

  • The use of tools to perform test cases is known as automation testing.

  • Manual testing will need expert labor, take a very long time, and be expensive.

  • Time, money, and personnel are all saved by automating testing. It's much simpler to run an automated test suite once you've captured everything.

  • Although every form of application may be manually tested, certain methods of testing, such as ad-hoc and monkey testing are best suitable for manual processing.

  • Automated testing is only suggested for stable systems, and it is often used for regression testing.

  • Manual testing may become tedious and dull over time.

  • In Automation Testing, the tedious portion of repeating the same test cases is done by automation software.

Manual Testing Automation Tools

  • Selenium

  • QTP

  • Jmeter

  • Loadrunner

  • TestLink

  • Center for Quality Assurance (ALM)

The Benefits of Manual Testing

  • The Black box approach does not need any programming experience.

  • It's used to evaluate dynamically changing graphical user interface layouts.

  • A tester engages with software in the role of a genuine user in order to identify accessibility and UI concerns.

  • It guarantees that the program is completely bug-free.

  • It is a cost-effective solution.

  • Novice testers will find it simple to pick up.

Manual Testing Has Its Drawbacks

  • It necessitates a vast number of people.

  • It takes a lot of time.

  • Depending on their abilities and expertise, testers create test scenarios. There's no way of knowing if they've explored all of the bases or not.

  • The test cases can't be reused. Every new piece of software will require its own set of test cases.

  • It does not include testing for all components of the testing process.

  • Because two teams operate together, it might be hard to comprehend one other's motivations, which can cause the process to be misled.


Manual testing requires patience, creativity, and an inquiring mind on the part of the tester.

Because people are engaged in testing software applications and end-users are also individuals, manual testing is an important aspect of user-friendly software development. They must think or act from the standpoint of the end customer.

Updated on 01-Dec-2021 05:45:09