How Does Biometric Access Control Work?

In our daily lives, we use many physical measurements to identify the people around us, be it the sound of a person, his fingerprint, or anything. It is a unique character that allows us to identify the person. The science of identifying a person using these physical and behavioral measurements and analyses is called Biometrics.

Let us now see more on Biometrics and how it works.

What is Biometrics?

From unlocking our smartphones to unlocking our bank locker, Biometrics plays a vital role in our lives as it is a much more secure way than other methods of access control such as keys, passwords, or IDs. One of its popularity is high-level security entry, access to sensitive data/information, and fraud and theft prevention. Although all this sounds very promising, they also have their areas of concern which we will be discussing further.

How Does Biometric Access Control Work?

Biometric access control and its functioning are based on a lot of research and technology. But don't worry, there is a simple explanation for everything.

A biometric system primarily has three components −

  • A sensor that detects the trait that will be used to identify you.

  • Computer hardware to store and read data

  • Software that evaluates the feature converts it to a graph or code and makes the actual comparisons.

The working of Biometrics primarily involves three basic steps −

  • Enrolment − At first, a unique characteristic of yours is recorded, together with other information such as your name, unique identification number, and so on.

  • Storage − Most systems, contrary to widespread assumption, do not preserve the whole image or video. A database is created, and your recorded characteristic is maintained in the form of a graph or code in this database.

  • Comparison − The next time you use it, the system compares the trait you present to the information on file. Using the stored data, it then chooses whether to grant or refuse your access request.

Types of Biometrics

Biometrics is mainly divided into two categories −

Physiological Identifiers

Fingerprints, facial ID, voice recognition, and other physiological identifiers are examples of physiological identifiers.

Behavioral Identifiers

Individual behaviors such as typing habits, mouse and finger movements, website and social media engagement patterns, walking gait, and other gestures are examples of behavioral identifiers. Instead of a single, one-time authentication check, several behavioral identifiers can be employed to offer continuous authentication. While it is still a younger method with lower reliability ratings, it can evolve with other biometric technology advancements.